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Title: Novel LDPC coding and decoding strategies : design, analysis, and algorithms
Author: Liu, Jingjing
Awarding Body: University of York
Current Institution: University of York
Date of Award: 2012
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In this digital era, modern communication systems play an essential part in nearly every aspect of life, with examples ranging from mobile networks and satellite communications to Internet and data transfer. Unfortunately, all communication systems in a practical setting are noisy, which indicates that we can either improve the physical characteristics of the channel or find a possible systematical solution, i.e. error control coding. The history of error control coding dates back to 1948 when Claude Shannon published his celebrated work “A Mathematical Theory of Communication”, which built a framework for channel coding, source coding and information theory. For the first time, we saw evidence for the existence of channel codes, which enable reliable communication as long as the information rate of the code does not surpass the so-called channel capacity. Nevertheless, in the following 60 years none of the codes have been proven closely to approach the theoretical bound until the arrival of turbo codes and the renaissance of LDPC codes. As a strong contender of turbo codes, the advantages of LDPC codes include parallel implementation of decoding algorithms and, more crucially, graphical construction of codes. However, there are also some drawbacks to LDPC codes, e.g. significant performance degradation due to the presence of short cycles or very high decoding latency. In this thesis, we will focus on the practical realisation of finite-length LDPC codes and devise algorithms to tackle those issues. Firstly, rate-compatible (RC) LDPC codes with short/moderate block lengths are investigated on the basis of optimising the graphical structure of the tanner graph (TG), in order to achieve a variety of code rates (0.1 < R < 0.9) by only using a single encoder-decoder pair. As is widely recognised in the literature, the presence of short cycles considerably reduces the overall performance of LDPC codes which significantly limits their application in communication systems. To reduce the impact of short cycles effectively for different code rates, algorithms for counting short cycles and a graph-related metric called Extrinsic Message Degree (EMD) are applied with the development of the proposed puncturing and extension techniques. A complete set of simulations are carried out to demonstrate that the proposed RC designs can largely minimise the performance loss caused by puncturing or extension. Secondly, at the decoding end, we study novel decoding strategies which compensate for the negative effect of short cycles by reweighting part of the extrinsic messages exchanged between the nodes of a TG. The proposed reweighted belief propagation (BP) algorithms aim to implement efficient decoding, i.e. accurate signal reconstruction and low decoding latency, for LDPC codes via various design methods. A variable factor appearance probability belief propagation (VFAP-BP) algorithm is proposed along with an improved version called a locally-optimized reweighted (LOW)-BP algorithm, both of which can be employed to enhance decoding performance significantly for regular and irregular LDPC codes. More importantly, the optimisation of reweighting parameters only takes place in an offline stage so that no additional computational complexity is required during the real-time decoding process. Lastly, two iterative detection and decoding (IDD) receivers are presented for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems operating in a spatial multiplexing configuration. QR decomposition (QRD)-type IDD receivers utilise the proposed multiple-feedback (MF)-QRD or variable-M (VM)-QRD detection algorithm with a standard BP decoding algorithm, while knowledge-aided (KA)-type receivers are equipped with a simple soft parallel interference cancellation (PIC) detector and the proposed reweighted BP decoders. In the uncoded scenario, the proposed MF-QRD and VM-QRD algorithms are shown to approach optimal performance, yet require a reduced computational complexity. In the LDPC-coded scenario, simulation results have illustrated that the proposed QRD-type IDD receivers can offer near-optimal performance after a small number of detection/decoding iterations and the proposed KA-type IDD receivers significantly outperform receivers using alternative decoding algorithms, while requiring similar decoding complexity.
Supervisor: de Lamare, Rodrigo Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available