Title:

Analytical and topological aspects of signatures

In both physical and social sciences, we usually use controlled differential equation to model various continuous evolving system; describing how a response y relates to another process x called control. For regular controls x, the unique existence of the response y is guaranteed while it would never be the case for nonsmooth controls via the classical approach. Besides, uniform closeness of controls may not imply closeness of their corresponding responses. Theory of rough paths provides a solution to both concerns. Since the creation of rough path theory, it enjoys a fruitful development and finds wide applications in stochastic analysis. In particular, rough path theory provides an effective method to study irregularity of curves and its geometric consequences in relation to integration of differential forms. In the chapter 2, we demonstrate the power of rough path theory in classical complex analysis by showing the rough path nature of the boundaries of a class of Holder's domains; as an immediate application, we extend the classical GaussGreen's theorem. Until recently, there has been only limited research on applications of theory of rough paths to high dimensional geometry. It is clear to us that many geometric objects, in some senses appearing as solids, are actually comprised of filaments. In the chapter 3, two basic results in the theory of rough paths which will motivate later development of my thesis has been included. In the chapters 4 and 5, we identify a sensible way to do geometric calculus via those filaments (more precisely, spacefilling rough paths) in dimension 3. In a recent joint work of Hambly and Lyons, they have shown that every rectifiable path can be completely characterized, up to treelike deformation, by an algebraic object called the signature, tensor of all iterated integrals, of the path. It is clear that all treelike deformation of the path would not change its topological features. For instance, the number of times a planar loop of finite length winds around a point (not lying on the path) is unaltered if one deforms the path in treelike ways. Therefore, it should be plausible to extract this topological information out from the signature of the loop since the signature is a complete algebraic invariant. In the chapter 6, we express the winding number of a nice loop (respectively linking number of a pair of nice loops) as a linear functional of the signature of the loop (respectively signatures of the pair of loops).
