Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS: http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.580578
Title: Self-discrepancy and shame in adolescents : relationships with self-esteem and self-compassion
Author: Winton, Holly
Awarding Body: University of Surrey
Current Institution: University of Surrey
Date of Award: 2012
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Abstract:
BACKGROUND Research suggests self-discrepancy is associated with shame, depression and anxiety in adults, as well as reduced self-worth. By contrast, the literature on adolescent experiences is sparse. This is surprising, given adolescence is a time of increased self-evaluation in developing the self and relations with others. Of prime interest is how young people's appraisals of themselves and others impact on self-esteem and emotional wellbeing. Thus, it is proposed self-discrepancy is associated with shame, depression and anxiety, due to its relationship with self-esteem. Associated low self-esteem and negative affect could be lessened by fostering self-compassion, which engenders tolerance of non-ideal self- attributes. Thus, it is also hypothesised that self-compassion moderates the relationship between self-discrepancy and self-esteem. METHOD A cross-sectional questionnaire-based design was employed: measures of self-discrepancy, self-esteem, self-compassion, shame, depression and anxiety were completed by a community sample of 141 16 to 18 year-olds. Data were subjected to correlation, regression, mediation and moderation analyses. RESULTS Self-discrepancy predicted a small but significant amount of the variance in shame, depression and anxiety. However, when self-esteem was entered simultaneously into the regression model, self-esteem emerged as the only significant predictor of negative affect. Subsequently, it was found that self- esteem partially mediates the relationship between self-discrepancy and negative affect. Self-compassion, however, did not significantly moderate the relationship between self-discrepancy and self-esteem. CONCLUSIONS Self-esteem has more predictive utility than self-discrepancy on adolescent experiences of shame, depression and anxiety, and it partially mediates the relationship between self-discrepancy and negative affect. Self- compassion is a potential protective factor against negative emotion, and possible explanations are discussed for why it was not revealed to Significantly moderate the relationship between self-discrepancy and self- esteem. Methodological limitations of the study are discussed, as are ideas for future research and clinical implications, including promoting self- compassion to protect self-discrepant adolescents from self-esteem damage and negative affect.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (D.Psychol.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID: uk.bl.ethos.580578  DOI: Not available
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