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Title: Image analysis and representation for textile design classification
Author: Jia, Wei
Awarding Body: University of Dundee
Current Institution: University of Dundee
Date of Award: 2011
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A good image representation is vital for image comparision and classification; it may affect the classification accuracy and efficiency. The purpose of this thesis was to explore novel and appropriate image representations. Another aim was to investigate these representations for image classification. Finally, novel features were examined for improving image classification accuracy. Images of interest to this thesis were textile design images. The motivation of analysing textile design images is to help designers browse images, fuel their creativity, and improve their design efficiency. In recent years, bag-of-words model has been shown to be a good base for image representation, and there have been many attempts to go beyond this representation. Bag-of-words models have been used frequently in the classification of image data, due to good performance and simplicity. “Words” in images can have different definitions and are obtained through steps of feature detection, feature description, and codeword calculation. The model represents an image as an orderless collection of local features. However, discarding the spatial relationships of local features limits the power of this model. This thesis exploited novel image representations, bag of shapes and region label graphs models, which were based on bag-of-words model. In both models, an image was represented by a collection of segmented regions, and each region was described by shape descriptors. In the latter model, graphs were constructed to capture the spatial information between groups of segmented regions and graph features were calculated based on some graph theory. Novel elements include use of MRFs to extract printed designs and woven patterns from textile images, utilisation of the extractions to form bag of shapes models, and construction of region label graphs to capture the spatial information. The extraction of textile designs was formulated as a pixel labelling problem. Algorithms for MRF optimisation and re-estimation were described and evaluated. A method for quantitative evaluation was presented and used to compare the performance of MRFs optimised using alpha-expansion and iterated conditional modes (ICM), both with and without parameter re-estimation. The results were used in the formation of the bag of shapes and region label graphs models. Bag of shapes model was a collection of MRFs' segmented regions, and the shape of each region was described with generic Fourier descriptors. Each image was represented as a bag of shapes. A simple yet competitive classification scheme based on nearest neighbour class-based matching was used. Classification performance was compared to that obtained when using bags of SIFT features. To capture the spatial information, region label graphs were constructed to obtain graph features. Regions with the same label were treated as a group and each group was associated uniquely with a vertex in an undirected, weighted graph. Each region group was represented as a bag of shape descriptors. Edges in the graph denoted either the extent to which the groups' regions were spatially adjacent or the dissimilarity of their respective bags of shapes. Series of unweighted graphs were obtained by removing edges in order of weight. Finally, an image was represented using its shape descriptors along with features derived from the chromatic numbers or domination numbers of the unweighted graphs and their complements. Linear SVM classifiers were used for classification. Experiments were implemented on data from Liberty Art Fabrics, which consisted of more than 10,000 complicated images mainly of printed textile designs and woven patterns. Experimental data was classified into seven classes manually by assigning each image a text descriptor based on content or design type. The seven classes were floral, paisley, stripe, leaf, geometric, spot, and check. The result showed that reasonable and interesting regions were obtained from MRF segmentation in which alpha-expansion with parameter re-estimation performs better than alpha-expansion without parameter re-estimation or ICM. This result was not only promising for textile CAD (Computer-Aided Design) to redesign the textile image, but also for image representation. It was also found that bag of shapes model based on MRF segmentation can obtain comparable classification accuracy with bag of SIFT features in the framework of nearest neighbour class-based matching. Finally, the result indicated that incorporation of graph features extracted by constructing region label graphs can improve the classification accuracy compared to both bag of shapes model and bag of SIFT models.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Technology Strategy Board ; Liberty Art Fabrics ; System Simulation ; V&A ; Calicojack ; British Machine Vision Association (BMVA)
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Image classification ; Image representation ; Bag of shapes ; Chromatic number ; Domination number ; Markov Random Field ; Support Vector Machine ; Region label graphs ; Nearest neighbour