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Title: Urban renewal policies : a critical analysis of urban renewal policies in Iran, 1286-1400 AH/1907-2020 AD
Author: Pourmosavi, Seyed Nader
Awarding Body: University of Sheffield
Current Institution: University of Sheffield
Date of Award: 2012
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Abstract:
This thesis addresses the situation of urban renewal policies during Qajar, Pahlavi and the Islamic Republic in the contemporary Iran, based on the process of legislation of civic organizations, urban legislative bodies and other related organizations. With an emphasis on socio-cultural and political factors, it examines the process of urban renewal policies. During the late Qajar strategic political and economical relationships between Iran and European countries, as well as military conflicts with British and Russia, encouraged the Iranian government to re-organize its administration in response to local and international issues (for example, the development of the Ministry of Interior from Department of Inspection). The Constitutional Revolution and establishment of the first parliament on 0 I /0311286 AH-June 1907 AD paved the way for civilian rule in urban areas and the introduction of effective civic organizations. Establishment of city councils and municipalities across the country are both the direct result of parliamentary approval of Baladiyah Constitution, which marked new era of urban development. After World War I and during the urban renewal movement in Europe, the controversial Law of Development of Urban Corridors was approved to develop organic urban areas into modem cities, which in this research is considered as the major urban renewal policy and programme during the First Phase of Urban Renewal Policies and Programmes. During World War II the infrastructure and urban areas of the country were severely damaged. Thus, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) financially and technically supported the government to overcome post war difficulties, which led to Iran's Development Programmes to organize reconstruction efforts and urban planning with the help of foreign organizations such as American International Council of Development. Iran's Third Development Programme demanded effective and uniform urban planning, therefore the Urban Planning Organization was introduced, responsible for the planning and improvement of urban areas. 22/12/1342 All-March 1963 AD announced a major development breakthrough with the introduction of the Ministry of Development and Housing, also approval of the Constitution of Urban Development, Law of Urban Renewal and Civil Improvement and other major urban regulations sped up the Second Phase of Urban Renewal Policies and Programmes. This phase ended with Barn's earthquake on 26112/2003 AD. The consequences of this natural disaster enforced the government to elevate urban renewal policies and programmes to national level to prevent another human catastrophe: this is better known as Urban Renewal Movement, which in this research is considered as the Third Phase of Urban Renewal Policies and Programmes. Following the Islamic Revolution and screening of governmental employees and academics, large numbers of senior and experience staff were forced to leave their posts. In this way, universities have been shut down and large numbers of young revolutionary forces without appropriate education or experience have come to occupy key positions. The urban problems sketched out here deepened during twenty-one years of Iran-Iraq war and ceasefire (1980-200 I AD) coupled with the employment of lifetime office holders with militarily or religious background in the foremost organizations. Constant cycles of establishment and dissolution, change or modification to constitutions, laws, regulations, chairs of the Ministries and civic organizations, and consequently the lack of urban development policy, are the main characteristics of this era. This period is responsible for the development of a gap which divided the process of urban renewal policies into two major eras; Pahlavi (relatively unknown) and Islamic Republic (relatively chaotic). Two of the main factors that motivate this research are my academic experience and involvement with civic organizations. There has been a significant lack of work that offers concrete materials to scholars, researchers, authorities and students to allow them to appreciate the socio-historical factors behind legislative bodies, and assist them in understanding urban renewal policies and programmes within a political framework. This research sets out to examine the greatest danger yet faced by Persian cities; bulldozer philosophy (Appendix H - Glossary). To describe the depth of the crisis, large amounts of information have been carefully collected and various issues such as the role of master-planning on regeneration programmes and the quality of executive programmes have been examined. The thesis approaches these various issues by analysing the legislation behind the establishment of the urban decision-making bodies, civic and executive organizations (Appendix H - Glossary), and role of provincial associations. Tracking the development of legislation alongside the analysis of socio-cultural and political events was central to the research process. This approach provided the latitude to cover all relevant aspects of planning and administration. Moreover, it provides a clear logic for the organisation of this thesis, and for others to develop further research with confidence.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID: uk.bl.ethos.574531  DOI: Not available
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