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Title: The growth and characterization of films of noble metal nanocrystals and inorganic semiconductors at the interface of two immiscible liquids
Author: Al-Brasi, Enteisar
Awarding Body: University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 2013
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Abstract:
Deposition of noble metal and semiconductor nanocrystalline thin films has received much attention. CdS and CdSe are important semiconductors used in optical devices. A wet chemical route which uses the interface of two immiscible liquids to control the growth and deposition of nanocrystalline thin films forms the basis of the current study. In this method, a metal precursor dissolved in toluene or decane is held in contact with a water layer containing a reducing or sulphiding agent. The reaction proceeds at the interface of the liquids and results in deposits adhering to the interfacial region. The products of such reactions typically consist of nanocrystals forming a thin film. Stable sols of Au, Ag were found to metathesize on contact with alkylamine in oil to form monolayer films that spread across large areas at the water/oil interface. The nature and properties of interfacial thin films depend on the alkylamine. Nanocrystalline thin films consisting of CdS adhering to the interface starting with a polydispersed aqueous sol of crystallites and alkylamine were obtained. The optical band gaps of the films formed are dependent on the alkylamine chain length, with the shortest chain yielding the largest gap. A systematic increase in particle diameters following adsorption is responsible for changes in the electronic structure of films. The formation of nanocrystalline films of CdS adhering at the interface using a toluene solution of cadmium diethyldithiocarbamate and aqueous Na2S solution, in the presence of tetraoctylammonium bromide (TOAB) in the aqueous phase, was investigated under various reaction parameters, while CdSe was obtained using Na2SeSO3 solution and the influences of deposition temperature and solution concentration were studied. A ternary water/decane/2-butoxyethanol /salt system was used to grow deposits of CdSe and CdS. Nanostructured thin films were obtained at the upper interface of the ternary system, between the emulsive middle layer and oil rich top phase. The influence of deposition conditions such as precursor concentrations and temperature, as well as the nature of the medium on the properties of the deposits was studied. Deposits grown using the ternary system were compared with those obtained using water/decane and water/toluene systems. Reaction parameters such as temperature, solution concentration and the size of CdS and CdSe were controlled. A thin film of CdS and CdSe nanocrystals was formed at the interface. The grain size was found to be dependent on reaction temperature and solution concentration, with higher temperatures and solution concentration resulting in larger grains. The nature of thin films obtained at the interface of two immiscible liquids and of a water/decane/2-butoxyethanol/salt ternary system were studied using Scanning and Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and UV-visible spectroscopy.
Supervisor: O'Brien, Paul; Prabhakar, John Thomas Sponsor: Libyan Embassy
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID: uk.bl.ethos.574299  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Self-Assembly,Au,Ag,CdS and CdSe nanocrystals,water/oil interface,thin film of nanocrystals,ternary of water/oil/amphiphile/salt system
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