Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS: http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.572825
Title: Ventricular function under LVAD support
Author: McCormick, Matthew
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2012
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Abstract:
This thesis presents a finite element methodology for simulating fluid–solid interactions in the left ventricle (LV) under LVAD support. The developed model was utilised to study the passive and active characteristics of ventricular function in anatomically accurate LV geometries constructed from normal and patient image data. A non–conforming ALE Navier–Stokes/finite–elasticity fluid–solid coupling system formed the core of the numerical scheme, onto which several novel numerical additions were made. These included a fictitious domain (FD) Lagrange multiplier method to capture the interactions between immersed rigid bodies and encasing elastic solids (required for the LVAD cannula), as well as modifications to the Newton–Raphson/line search algorithm (which provided a 2 to 10 fold reduction in simulation time). Additional developments involved methods for extending the model to ventricular simulations. This required the creation of coupling methods, for both fluid and solid problems, to enable the integration of a lumped parameter representation of the systemic and pulmonary circulatory networks; the implementation and tuning of models of passive and active myocardial behaviour; as well as the testing of appropriate element types for coupling non–conforming fluid– solid finite element models under high interface tractions (finding that curvilinear spatial interpolations of the fluid geometry perform best). The behaviour of the resulting numerical scheme was investigated in a series of canonical test problems and found to be convergent and stable. The FD convergence studies also found that discontinuous pressure elements were better at capturing pressure gradients across FD boundaries. The ventricular simulations focused firstly on studying the passive diastolic behaviour of the LV both with and without LVAD support. Substantially different vortical flow features were observed when LVAD outflow was included. Additionally, a study of LVAD cannula lengths, using a particle tracking algorithm to determine recirculation rates of blood within the LV, found that shorter cannulas improved the recirculation of blood from the LV apex. Incorporating myocardial contraction, the model was extended to simulate the full cardiac cycle, converging on a repeating pressure–volume loop over 2 heart beats. Studies on the normal LV geometry found that LVAD implementation restricts the recirculation of early diastolic inflow, and that fluid–solid coupled models introduce greater heterogeneity of myocardial work than was observed in equivalent solid only models. A patient study was undertaken using a myocardial geometry constructed using image data from an LVAD implant recipient. A series of different LVAD flow regimes were tested. It was found that the opening of the aortic valve had a homogenising effect on the spatial variation of work, indicating that the synchronisation of LVAD outflow with the cardiac cycle is more important if the valve remains shut. Additionally, increasing LVAD outflow during systole and decreasing it during diastole led to improved mixing of blood in the ventricular cavity – compared with either the inverse, or holding outflow constant. Validation of these findings has the potential to impact the treatment protocols of LVAD patients.
Supervisor: Smith, Nic ; Kay, David Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID: uk.bl.ethos.572825  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Computer science (mathematics) ; Fluid mechanics (mathematics) ; Mathematical biology ; Biomedical engineering ; computational modelling ; left ventricular assist devices ; cardiac mechanics ; finite element method ; fictitious domain method ; blood flow modelling ; ALE Navier-Stokes
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