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Title: PAPR and ICI reduction techniques for OFDM based satellite communication systems
Author: Al-Dalakta, Emad Yacoub Qeryaqos
Awarding Body: University of Newcastle Upon Tyne
Current Institution: University of Newcastle upon Tyne
Date of Award: 2012
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Multi-carrier systems such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) are significantly affected by peak-to-average-power ratio (PAPR). Unfortunately, the high PAPR inherent to OFDM signals envelopes will occasionally drive high power amplifiers (HPAs) to operate in the nonlinear region of their characteristic curve. The nonlinearity of the HPA exhibits amplitude and phase distortions, which cause loss of orthogonality among the subcarriers (SCs), and hence, inter-carrier interference (ICI) is introduced in the transmitted signal. The ICI power is proportional to the amplitude of the signal at the amplifier input and it may cause a considerable bit error rate (BER) degradation. A plethora of research has been devoted to reduce the performance degradation due to the PAPR problem inherent to OFDM systems. Some of the reported techniques such as amplitude clipping have low-complexity; on the other hand, they suffer from various problems such as in-band distortion and out-of-band expansion. Signal companding methods have low-complexity, good distortion and spectral properties; however, they have limited PAPR reduction capabilities. Advanced techniques such as coding, partial transmit sequences (PTS) and selected mapping (SLM) have also been considered for PAPR reduction. Such techniques are efficient and distortionless, nevertheless, their computational complexity is high and requires the transmission of several side information (SI) bits. In this thesis, a new low-complexity scheme is proposed based on the PTS that employs two inverse fast Fourier transforms (IFFTs) and two circulant transform matrices, in order to reduce complexity and improve the system performance. Furthermore, the low-complexity scheme is simplified by omitting one of the circulant transform matrices in order to reduce both the computational complexity and the number of SI bits at the cost of a small reduction in PAPR and BER performance. It is well known that, accurate PAPR estimation requires oversampling of the transmitted signal, which in turn results in increased complexity. More importantly, minimising the PAPR does not necessarily minimise the distortion produced by the nonlinearity of the HPA. Therefore, minimising PAPR does not necessarily imply that the BER will be minimised too. Efficient and less complex schemes for BER reduction of OFDM systems in the presence of nonlinear HPA and/or carrier frequency offset (CFO) are proposed. These proposed techniques are based on predicting the distortion introduced by the nonlinearity of HPA and/or CFO. Subsequently, techniques such as the PTS and SLM are invoked to minimise the distortion and BER. Three distortion metrics are adopted in this thesis: inter-modulation distortion (IMD), peak interference-to-carrier ratio (PICR) and distortion-to-signal power ratio (DSR). Monte Carlo simulations will confirm that the DSR and PICR are more reliable than the PAPR and IMD for selecting the coefficients of the PTS and SLM to minimise the BER. Furthermore, complexity analyses demonstrate that the proposed schemes offer significant complexity reduction when compared to standard PAPR-based methods. A closed form solution for accurate BER for the OFDM signals perturbed by both the HPA nonlinearity and CFO was derived. Good agreement between the simulation results and the theoretical analysis can be obtained for different HPA parameters and CFOs. Finally, efficient approaches to reduce the impact of nonlinear power amplifiers with respect to the BER of OFDM systems are proposed. These are approaches based on: the well-established PAPR schemes, a power amplifier model and a simple single point cross correlator. The optimum phase sequence within the proposed approaches is selected by maximising the correlation between the input and output of the power amplifier model. Simulation results have confirmed that the BER using the proposed approaches is almost identical to the DSR, while the complexity is reduced significantly for particular system configurations.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available