Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS: http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.567016
Title: The exosome and human ribosome biogenesis
Author: Sloan, Katherine
Awarding Body: University of Newcastle Upon Tyne
Current Institution: University of Newcastle upon Tyne
Date of Award: 2012
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Abstract:
Exoribonucleases have many important functions in the cell including RNA processing, turnover and quality control. One of the key 3’-5’ exonucleases is the exosome, a multiprotein complex that has been extensively characterised in yeast. Many substrates that undergo maturation and/or degradation involving the yeast exosome have been identified and these include tRNAs, mRNAs, snRNAs, snoRNAs and rRNAs. By comparison, the human exosome is poorly understood and it is not clear whether functions of the yeast exosome are conserved in higher eukaryotes. We show that the human exosome has degradation functions including the turnover, but not the processing, of snoRNAs and the recycling of excised pre-rRNA fragments. We and others have shown that the human exosome also participates in pre-rRNA processing to form the mature 3’ end of 5.8S rRNA. Here we identify a novel role for the exosome in the processing of the pre-rRNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1). The small (18S) and large (5.8S and 28S) subunit rRNAs are co-transcribed as a single precursor. Processing of ITS1 is a key step in ribosome biogenesis as it separates 18S from the large subunit rRNAs and in higher eukaryotes it involves an additional processing step compared to yeast. We define alternative ITS1 processing pathways in human cells. In the major pathway, following an endonucleolytic cleavage to separate the small and large subunit rRNAs, the exosome, which is not involved in ITS1 processing in yeast, processes to within 25 nucleotides of the 3’ end of 18S. Our data highlight significant differences between the nucleases involved in ITS1 processing in yeast and humans. However, it appears that the roles of several yeast biogenesis factors are conserved in higher eukaryotes. Further, we have investigated mechanisms by which exonucleolytic processing of ITS1 may be regulated and suggest how this could be coordinated with the final maturation steps of the pre-40S complex.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: BBSRC ; Wellcome Trust
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID: uk.bl.ethos.567016  DOI: Not available
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