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Title: Ethnic differences in the nutritional compositions of diets in children : relations to the emerging differences in risks of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes and obesity
Author: Donin, Angela S.
Awarding Body: St George's, University of London
Current Institution: St George's, University of London
Date of Award: 2012
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Abstract:
In the UK, there are marked ethnic differences in risks of coronary heart disease (CHD), type 2 diabetes and obesity, which originate in childhood. Dietary nutrient intakes are important determinants of chronic disease risks. The aims of this thesis are to determine (a) the extent of ethnic differences in dietary nutrient intakes in children and (b) the contribution of dietary nutrient intakes to ethnic differences in blood lipids, insulin and glucose and adiposity markers. The analyses are based on a cross-sectional study of 2209 school children of South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white European origin aged 9-10 years in whom detailed assessments of dietary nutrient intakes were made, using 24-hour recall and 4 day diary methods. Compared with white European children, South Asian children reported higher mean total energy, fat, polyunsaturated fat and protein intakes; carbohydrate intakes (particularly sugars) and vitamins C and D intakes were lower. Black African-Caribbean children, in contrast, had lower intakes of total and saturated fat, non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and vitamin D and higher intakes of protein and carbohydrates (particularly starch). Marked ethnic differences in cardio-rnetabolic risk markers were apparent. South Asian children had raised insulin and HbAlc levels, high triglyceride and low HDL-cholesterol; while LDL cholesterol levels were similar; black African-Caribbean children had moderately raised insulin and HbAlc levels, low LDL- cholesterol and triglycerides and high HDL-cholesterol, particularly in black Africans. The lower LDL-cholesterol levels in black Africans were explained by their lower saturated fat intakes and their higher starch intakes. However, ethnic differences in dietary nutrient intakes had little effect on ethnic differences in type 2 diabetes risk markers and adiposity. The dietary patterns of black Africans may help to protect against CHD risk in the next generation and provide a useful reference point for chronic disease prevention for other ethnic groups.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID: uk.bl.ethos.559276  DOI: Not available
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