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Title: Solid state chemistry of hydrate forming compounds
Author: Khamar, Dikshitkumar
Awarding Body: Liverpool John Moores University
Current Institution: Liverpool John Moores University
Date of Award: 2012
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Polymorphism presents complex issues for the pharmaceutical industry from processing, regulatory, patenting and stability perspectives. It can be further challenging to control the same form throughout processing and development when it has the capacity to form a hydrate. Incorporation of water into the crystal lattice contributes to significant differences in solubility, stability and bioavailability of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). During processing and formulating steps, water is used in many procedures such as, recrystallisation, wet granulation, aqueous coating lyophilisation etc. This can trigger anhydrous to hydrate conversion and could be detrimental for bioavailability and stability of the product. The factors responsible for this type of transition such as, role of solvent, activity of solvent, thermodynamic stability of different forms, equilibrium conditions, processing induced transformations are investigated. Theophylline, a channel hydrate, is chosen as a model compound which exhibits both polymorphs and solvates. The value of water activity at which the theophylline monohydrate is thermodynamically stable form was investigated using solubility, cooling crystallisation and slurry experiments and found to be aw 2: 0.70 at 25 QC. Full characterisation of the solid state chemistry of theophylline has resulted in the discovery of a new, previously unreported, anhydrous form of theophylline, called Form IV. Using solubility, crystallisation, slurrying and thermal experiments, Form IV was found to be thermodynamically more stable than the currently known stable form, Form H. The crystal structure of Form IV and Form I was determined by single crystal :X-Ray diffraction technique. The crystal structures for Form IV and Form I are deposited in Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) with reference code BAPLOT03 and BAPLOT04 respectively. The experimentally observed stability behaviour was correlated with the structural features of solid forms and also with the energy calculations. The kinetic ally stable Form H serves as the intermediate for polymorphic and hydrate-anhydrate transformations as the catemer motif observed in Form II can easily propagate by forming a strong and directional hydrogen bonds. In contrast, the dimer of theophylline molecules as observed in Form IV needs the presence of solvent to link through other dimers only by weak interactions. This results in the generation of Form IV only via solvent mediated transformations. Solid state chemistry of hydrate forming compounds Theophylline has also been used here as a model compound to study eo crystallisation with various saturated, dicarboxylic acids. A new, eo crystal of theophylline with adipic acid was generated and using thermal methods and PXRD, the stoichiometry (1 :2, adipic acid: theophylline) is confirmed. The complex hydration-dehydration behaviour of theophylline was investigated. The samples subjected to different pharmaceutical processing conditions for hydration-dehydration, generated various .intermediate phases suggesting multiple dehydration mechanisms and the potential of phase transformations during processing of such kind of hydrate forming compounds. The sensitivity of thermal methods over other bulk methods such as PXRD, in detecting a small amount of phase impurity, has been highlighted.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available