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Title: On the full Lagrangian approach and thermophoretic deposition in gas-particle flows
Author: Healy, David Patrick
Awarding Body: University of Cambridge
Current Institution: University of Cambridge
Date of Award: 2003
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Theoretical and experimental studies of particle deposition in turbulent pipe flow have been carried out for over forty years, but some of the most important transport mechanisms are still not well understood. The first part of this thesis is concerned with the calculation of particle density when using Lagrangian methods to predict inertial particle transport in two-dimensional laminar fluid flows. Traditionally, Lagrangian calculations involve integrating the particle equations of motion along particle pathlines, and the particle density is obtained by applying a statistical averaging procedure to those pathlines which intersect a particular computational grid cell. Unfortunately, extremely large numbers of particles are required to reduce the statistical errors to acceptable levels, and this makes the method computationally expensive. Recently, the Full Lagrangian approach has been developed, which allows the direct calculation of the particle density along particle pathlines. This method had previously been applied only to simple analytical flow fields. The application of the method to CFD generated fluid velocity fields was shown to be possible, and the results obtained using the Full Lagrangian approach were compared to those from a traditional Lagrangian approach. It was found that better quality solutions could be obtained with the use of far fewer particle pathlines. An analysis of the manner in which the Full Lagrangian approach deals with particles whose paths cross each other (and the resulting discontinuity in particle density) was also undertaken, and this illustrates the sophistication of the method. The second part of the thesis comprises an experimental and theoretical study of the deposition of small particles in turbulent flows by thermophoresis. Thermophoresis is the phenomenon whereby small particles suspended in a gas in which there exists a temperature gradient experience a force in the direction opposite from that of the temperature gradient. Previous researchers have attempted to impose a radial temperature difference in pipe flow experiments, but have not yet succeeded in attaining a constant thermophoretic force along the length of the pipe. This limits the accuracy and usefulness of the data for the validation of theoretical expressions for the thermophoretic fluxes. An experimental rig has been designed to achieve a constant thermophoretic force. This was done by using an annular geometry with a cold inner wall and hot outer wall. The particle size was varied and the deposition flux was measured for turbulent flow with three temperature differences. The deposition fluxes for small particles were found to be independent of dimensionless particle size, with each increase in temperature difference resulting in an increase in magnitude of the flux. Evidence of a thermophoresis-turbulence coupling was found for intermediate-sized particles, and large particles were not influenced by thermophoresis. A theory of particle deposition, developed for the case of turbulent pipe flow, was modified to study flow in a turbulent annulus, so that theoretical expressions for the thermophoretic fluxes could be included and compared with the experimental results. Agreement with experimental data was quite good, but some deficiencies in a widely used theoretical expression for the thermophoretic flux were exposed. An alternative expression was used, which gave much better agreement with the experimental data, and the mechanisms behind the thermophoresis-turbulence coupling were also investigated. The validation of this expression for the thermophoretic force will allow its inclusion in numerical studies of particle deposition in more complex geometries.
Supervisor: Young, John Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: two phase flow ; annulus ; turbulent pipe flow ; particle deposition ; thermophoresis