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Title: Role of the Yale Institute of International Studies in the construction of the United States National Security Ideology, 1935 - 1951
Author: Ramos, Paulo Jorge Batista
Awarding Body: The University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 2003
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Abstract:
This thesis examines the history of the Yale Institute of International Studies from 1935 to 1951. The key Yale Institute members were Nicholas J. Spykman, Frederick S. Dunn, Arnold Wolfers, Percy E. Corbett, William T. R. Fox, David N. Rowe, Bernard Brodie, Klaus Knorr and Gabriel Almond. The Institute pioneered the study of international relations in the United States during the interwar period based on a realist-behaviourist approach. The Institute was part of the postwar American foreign policy establishment and it helped to reshape United States foreign policy by coordinating it with military policies and strategies and promoting the linkage of political goals with military means. Also, through their activities in the study of international relations the Yale group helped to fight the isolationist mood endemic to American society and to establish globalism as a central feature of American relations with the rest of the world. In this way, their educational and research programmes overlapped with some of the key elements of the new national security ideology that was to become dominant during the Cold War. The Yale Institute was not solely responsible for the development of this new ideology. They had the collaboration of academics from Princeton (Edward M. Earle, Harold Sprout, and Jacob Viner) and Columbia (Grayson Kirk and Philip Jessup) universities and received considerable financial support from the Rockefeller Foundation, which was in part responsible for the Institute's foundation, the Carnegie Corporation and business At the higher levels of state power the Yale group worked closely, at particular periods of its history, with the State Department on international organization issues, and with the War Department on strategic doctrines and on the foundation of the National War College. Although the Institute did not influence any critical decision, examination of the archival material researched shows that the Institute's work and knowledge helped the state decision-makers to inform their opinions and to take decisions. Hence the national security policy relied not only on a series of incremental decisions made by policymakers in the absence of alternative policy choices, and pressed by historical events, but also on the slow transformation of American elite worldviews, to which the Yale Institute contributed. The Yale Institute gave rise to an intellectual movement that was to dominate postwar American academe. They trained future generations of prominent politicians, military officials and leading academics in international affairs, and they founded the journal World Politics, among other initiatives they took in the development of the academic study of international relations. The thesis tests four theoretical models: pluralism, corporatism, statism and the Gramscian perspective. It concludes that Gramsci's theory of power comes closest to explaining the Yale Institute's role in the construction of the United States national security ideology during the early Cold War.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID: uk.bl.ethos.536935  DOI: Not available
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