His Majesty's advocate : Sir James Stewart of Goodtrees (1635-1713) and Covenanter resistance theory under the Restoration monarchy
This thesis is the first to explore the life and political thought of Sir James Stewart of Goodtrees (1635-1713). The first part reviews the life of his father, Sir James Stewart of Kirk field (1608-1681) to 1661, and Goodtrees' own life from birth to his admission to the Scots bar in 1661. This provides the backdrop of history necessary to appreciate his contributions as both writer and radical activist. Particular attention focuses on the conflict between Charles I and Charles II, on the one hand, and the Church of Scotland, on the other; the National Covenant (1638) and the Solemn League and Covenant of(1643); the British wars of religion; and the upheavals following the Restoration in the 1660s, culminating in the Pentland Rising of 1666. The next part develops Goodtrees' political philosophy from his two most important writings. Chapter 3 reviews and interprets Naphtali (1667), a defence of those who rose at Pentland. Chapter 4 reviews Andrew Honyman's Survey of Naphtali (1668, 1669), a rebuttal of Naphtali and standard Anglican case for royal absolutism. Chapter 5 reviews and interprets Goodtrees' Jus Populi Vindicatum, or The People's Right, to defend themselves and their Covenanted Religion, vindicated (1669), his rejoinder to Honyman. His Calvinist, covenantal constitutionalism is shown to be an important link between earlier resistance theorists like John Knox and Samuel Rutherford and the later Whigs, represented preeminently by John Locke. The third part (chapters 6-7) reviews Goodtrees' life and minor writings as radical critic of the Restoration monarchy; a participant in plots among British exiles in Holland to overthrow it; a member briefly of James's Scottish government before the Revolution; and lord advocate and churchman pursuing political, legal, and ecclesiastical reforms afterwards.