Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS: http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.519251
Title: Multiscale modelling of the influence of convection on dendrite formation and freckle initiation during vacuum arc remelting
Author: Yuan, Lang
Awarding Body: Imperial College London
Current Institution: Imperial College London
Date of Award: 2010
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Abstract:
Vacuum Arc Remelting (VAR) is employed to produce homogeneous ingots with a controlled, fine, microstructure. It is applied to reactive and segregation prone alloys where convection can influence microstructure and defect formation. In this study, a microscopic solidification model was extended to incorporate both forced and natural convection. The Navier-Stokes equations were solved for liquid and mushy zones using a modified projection method. The energy conservation and solute diffusion equations were solved via a combined stochastic nucleation approach along with a finite difference solution to simulate dendritic growth. This microscopic model was coupled to a 3D transient VAR model which was developed by using a multi-physics modelling software package, PHYSICA. The multiscale model enables simulations covering the range from dendrites (in microns) to the complete process (in meters). These numerical models were used to investigate: (i) the formation of dendritic microstructures under natural and forced convections; (ii) initiation of solute channels (freckles) in directional solidification in terms of interdendritic thermosolutal convection; and (iii) the macroscopic physical dynamics in VAR and their influence on freckle formation. 2D and 3D dendritic microstructure were simulated by taking into account both solutal and thermal diffusion for both constrained and unconstrained growth using the solidification model. For unconstrained equiaxed dendritic growth, forced convection was found to enhance dendritic growth in the upstream region while retarding downstream growth. In terms of dimensionality, dendritic growth in 3D is faster than 2D and convection promotes the coarsening of perpendicular arms and side branching in 3D. For constrained columnar dendritic growth, downward interdendritic convection is stopped by primary dendritic arms in 2D; this was not the case in 3D. Consequently, 3D simulations must be used when studying thermosolutal convection during solidification, since 2D simulations lead to inappropriate results. The microscopic model was also used to study the initiation of freckles for Pb-Sn alloys, predicting solute channel formation during directional solidification at a microstructural level for the first time. These simulations show that the local remelting due to high solute concentrations and continuous upward convection of segregated liquid result in the formation of sustained open solute channels. High initial Sn compositions, low casting speeds and low temperature gradients, all promote the initiation of these solute channels and hence freckles. to study the initiation of freckles for Pb-Sn alloys, predicting solute channel formation during directional solidification at a microstructural level for the first time. These simulations show that the local remelting due to high solute concentrations and continuous upward convection of segregated liquid result in the formation of sustained open solute channels. High initial Sn compositions, low casting speeds and low temperature gradients, all promote the initiation of these solute channels and hence freckles.
Supervisor: Pericleous, Koulis ; Lee, Peter Sponsor: EPSRC ; ORS ; Department of Materials
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID: uk.bl.ethos.519251  DOI: Not available
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