Motion scalability for video coding with flexible spatio-temporal decompositions
The research presented in this thesis aims to extend the scalability range of the wavelet-based video coding systems in order to achieve fully scalable coding with a wide range of available decoding points. Since the temporal redundancy regularly comprises the main portion of the global video sequence redundancy, the techniques that can be generally termed motion decorrelation techniques have a central role in the overall compression performance. For this reason the scalable motion modelling and coding are of utmost importance, and specifically, in this thesis possible solutions are identified and analysed. The main contributions of the presented research are grouped into two interrelated and complementary topics. Firstly a flexible motion model with rateoptimised estimation technique is introduced. The proposed motion model is based on tree structures and allows high adaptability needed for layered motion coding. The flexible structure for motion compensation allows for optimisation at different stages of the adaptive spatio-temporal decomposition, which is crucial for scalable coding that targets decoding on different resolutions. By utilising an adaptive choice of wavelet filterbank, the model enables high compression based on efficient mode selection. Secondly, solutions for scalable motion modelling and coding are developed. These solutions are based on precision limiting of motion vectors and creation of a layered motion structure that describes hierarchically coded motion. The solution based on precision limiting relies on layered bit-plane coding of motion vector values. The second solution builds on recently established techniques that impose scalability on a motion structure. The new approach is based on two major improvements: the evaluation of distortion in temporal Subbands and motion search in temporal subbands that finds the optimal motion vectors for layered motion structure. Exhaustive tests on the rate-distortion performance in demanding scalable video coding scenarios show benefits of application of both developed flexible motion model and various solutions for scalable motion coding.