Impact of automatic identification system (AIS) on safety of marine navigation
Automatic Identification System (AIS) was introduced with the overall aim to promote efficiency and safety of navigation, protection of environment, and safety of life at sea. Consequently, ship-borne AIS was implemented on a mandatory basis by IMO in 2000 and later amendments to chapter V of Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Convention. Therefore SOLAS Convention vessels were required to carry AIS in a phased approach, from I" July 2002 to end of December 2004. The intention is to provide more precise information and a clear traffic view in navigation operations, particularly in anti-collision operation. This mandatory implementation of AIS has raised a number of issues with respect to its success in fulfilment of the intended role. In order to improve the efficiency of the AIS in navigation operation, this research mainly focused on the accuracy of AIS information, and practical use of the technology on board the ships. The intentions were to assess reliability of data, level of human failure associated with AIS, and the degree of actual use of the technology by navigators. This research firstly provided impressions about AIS technology for anti-collision operation and other marine operation and, about a system's approach to the issue of human failure in marine risk management. Secondly, this research has assessed reliability of AIS data by examination of data collected through three AIS data studies. Thirdly, it has evaluated navigators' attitude and behaviour to AIS usage by analysing the data from navigators' feedback collected through the AIS questionnaire survey focused on their perceptions about different aspects of AIS related to its use. This research revealed that some aspects of the AIS technology and some features of its users need further attention and improvement, so as to achieve its intended objectives in navigation. This study finally contributed in proposing the AIS User Satisfaction Model as a suitable framework for evaluation of navigators' satisfaction and extent of the use of AIS. This model can probably be used as the basis for measuring navigators' attitude and behaviour about other similar maritime technologies.