Review of primary frequency control requirements on the GB power system against a background of increasing renewable generation
The system frequency of a synchronous power system varies with the imbalance of energy supplied and the electrical energy consumed. When large generating blocks are lost, the system undergoes a frequency swing relative to the size of the loss. Limits imposed on the magnitude of frequency deviation† prevent system collapse. Operation of frequency responsive plant to control frequency, results in lower machine efficiencies. Changes to the generation mix on the British transmission system have occurred in the past ten years, when the response requirement was last reviewed. Future increased levels of wind turbines‡ will alter the operational characteristics of the system and warrant investigation. A process to optimise the response requirements while maintaining statutory limits on frequency deviation has been identified. The method requires suitable load and generator models to replicate transmission system performance. A value to substitute for current load sensitivity to frequency has been presented from empirical studies. Traditional coal fired generator models have been improved with additional functions to provide a comparable response with existing units. A novel combined cycle gas turbine model using fundamental equations and control blocks has also been developed. A doubly fed induction generator model, based on existing literature, has been introduced for representing wind turbine behaviour in system response studies. Validation of individual models and the complete system against historic loss events has established confidence in the method. A review of the current system with the dynamic model showed that current primary response requirements are inadequate. The secondary response requirements generally show a slight reduction in the holding levels. Simulations including extra wind generation have shown that there is potential to reduce the primary response requirement in the future. The secondary response requirements are maintained with added wind farms.