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Title: A methodology for representing low and zero carbon technologies in home energy ratings
Author: Wright, William David
Awarding Body: De Montfort University
Current Institution: De Montfort University
Date of Award: 2006
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Home Energy Ratings (HERs) have been a factor in reducing emissions from UK housing stock over the last twenty years. The new EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive requires the contribution from Low and Zero Carbon Technologies (LZCs) to be included in such ratings. However, LZCs do not behave in the same way as fossil-fuelled energy sources and the requirement raises several questions about the existing philosophy of energy ratings. This thesis aims to answer these questions in a practical way by developing and testing solutions as a basis for a new methodology for assessing examples of LZC output in the UK's NHER, to permit straightforward comparison and quantification of the merits of each technology. The example technologies of solar domestic water heating, photovoltaic cells and micro-combined heat and power were chosen to illustrate the scope for comparison within a HER in terms of location, demand matching, and export, from amongst the technologies likely to be in general use in future. Hourly models of these LZCs have been investigated, selected and adapted for use in the energy model underlying the HER, then simplified to a format appropriate foruse ill a HER, preservmg the most unportant details. The results of this simplification exercise were to give the variables that most influence the performance of each chosen LZC technology. In each case, variables dependant upon location were amongst those that had the most significant effect on yield. It is desirable to use different criteria when rating renewable energy than with fossil energy. Where cost and quantity of fuel used are the main issues in rating conventional technologies, demand matching and the emissions reduction potential of export are major concerns in rating LZCs, so to approximate these external factors, selected historical data describing national profiles of electricity demand and generation mix have been adapted for use with the LZC models alongside generated domestic electricity demand profiles. These have been used in evaluating the worth of replacement energy as it changes over time. The profile of yield and export for each LZC type and combination can be compared to the domestic demand and national demand profiles respectively. For each of these comparisons, a factor describing the fit of each supply profile to the demand has been derived. These factors have been applied along with multiple regression analysis in simplifications of the models. Equations have been derived which best capture the expected energy performance of the LZC types for all ordinary situations, 'and are appropriate for use in HERs
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available