Advanced optical fibre gratings and applications
This thesis describes a detailed study of advanced optical fibre sensors based on fibre Bragg grating (FBG), tilted fibre Bragg grating (TFBG) and long-period grating (LPG) and their applications in optical communications and sensing. The major contributions presented in this thesis are summarised below. The most important contribution from the research work presented in this thesis is the implementation of in-fibre grating based refractive index (RI) sensors, which could be the good candidates for optical biochemical sensing. Several fibre grating based RI sensors have been proposed and demonstrated by exploring novel grating structures and different fibre types, and employing efficient hydrofluoric acid etching technique to enhance the RI sensitivity. All the RI devices discussed in this thesis have been used to measure the concentration of sugar solution to simulate the chemical sensing. Efforts have also been made to overcome the RI-temperature cross-sensitivity for practical application. The demonstrated in-fibre grating based RI sensors could be further implemented as potential optical biosensors by applying bioactive coatings to realise high bio-sensitivity and bio-selectivity. Another major contribution of this thesis is the application of TFBGs. A prototype interrogation system by the use of TFBG with CCD-array was implemented to perform wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) interrogation around 800nm wavelength region with the advantages of compact size, fast detection speed and low-cost. As a high light, a novel in-fibre twist sensors utilising strong polarisation dependant coupling behaviour of an 81°-TFBG was presented to demonstrate the high torsion sensitivity and capability of direction recognition.