All at sea? : Japan's response to the contemporary maritime security threats posed by infidels, pirates and barbarians
This thesis examines Japan's response to contemporary maritime security issues that adversely affect Japanese national interests. The maritime threats studied in this thesis are posed by actors deemed to be on the periphery of, if not wholly outside, the interstate society as defined by the English School. Because the actions of these actors cannot be justified according to the laws and norms of the interstate society they are termed outlaws. In order to understand Japan's response to maritime security threats it is necessary to determine the motivations and characteristics of the outlaws under investigation. Those outlaws who are politically motivated, but can be bargained with, have been designated barbarians. Outlaws who are politically driven and seek the overthrow of the interstate society are deemed infidels. Finally, maritime outlaws who operate for economic gain are labelled pirates. This thesis is concerned with how the different outlaw types affect order in the interstate society and how Japan works to maintain order in the interstate society. This raises the question of whether order in the interstate society is to be upheld at the expense of justice and how the balance of order versus justice determines whether the interstate society is pluralist or solidarist. This thesis finds that Japan's response to contemporary maritime security threats has not balanced issues of order and justice in the interstate society. Only by responding to the maritime threats posed by barbarians, infidels and pirates from a perspective of justice that takes Human Security issues into account can order in the international society truly be sustained.