What the analysis of empathy in the fifth Cartesian Meditation reveals for psychotherapy
The thesis agrees that there can be interpreted within conscious life, the influence of the past. The past can influence the intersubjective style of an ego, a person in some of their relations with others. But Freud held an unclear position on how to interpret 'unconscious intentionality'. He preferred theory about senses that never appear and natural scientific science. It is argued that concepts such as transference, countertransference and unconscious communication should be contextualised within intersubjectivity in the strong sense of a potential manifold of interpretable perspectives on any single cultural object. The answer is to show that Freud's key ideas are situated within metaphysical commitments to natural science and material cause overall in an unclear relation to conscious psychological life. Husserl's apriori analysis of intersubjectivity is argued to explain any psychological event in relation to the past and the current therapeutic situation. Consequently, Freud's key ideas need to be abandoned in preference for a rationalisation about meaning, empathy and intersubjectivity as more adequate explanations of the conditions for the psychological meaningfulness of any psychological cultural object.