Design &implementation of complex-valued FIR digital filters with application to migration of seismic data
One-dimensional (I-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) frequency-space seismic migration FIR digital filter coefficients are of complex values when such filters require special space domain as well as wavenumber domain characteristics. In this thesis, such FIR digital filters are designed using Vector Space Projection Methods (VSPMs), which can satisfy the desired predefined filters' properties, for 2-D and three-dimensional (3-D) seismic data sets, respectively. More precisely, the pure and the relaxed projection algorithms, which are part of the VSPM theory, are derived. Simulation results show that the relaxed version of the pure algorithm can introduce significant savings in terms of the number of iterations required. Also, due to some undesirable background artifacts on migrated sections, a modified version of the pure algorithm was used to eliminate such effects. This modification has also led to a significant reduction in the number of computations when compared to both the pure and relaxed algorithms. We further propose a generalization of the l-D (real/complex-valued) pure algorithm to multi-dimensional (m-D) complex-valued FIR digital filters, where the resulting frequency responses possess an approximate equiripple nature. Superior designs are obtained when compared with other previously reported methods. In addition, we also propose a new scheme for implementing the predesigned 2-D migration FIR filters. This realization is based on Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). Unlike the existing realization methods which are used for this geophysical application, this cheap realization via SVD, compared with the true 2-D convolution, results in satisfactory wavenumber responses. Finally, an application to seismic migration of 2-D and 3-D synthetic sections is shown to confirm our theoretical conclusions. The proposed resulting migration FIR filters are applied also to the challenging SEGIEAGE Salt model data. The migrated section (image) outperformed images obtained using other FIR filters and with other standard migration techniques where difficult structures contained in such a challenging model are imaged clearly.