Characterisation and modelling of flow mechanisms for direct contact condensation of steam injected into water
Direct contact condensation of steam injected into water is a special mode of condensation where condensation occurs on the interface between steam and water. This type of condensation forms an essential part of various industrial applications and correct prediction and modelling of the condensation behaviour is crucial to obtain an optimised design of such devices. While present prediction models for direct contact condensation are valid for a limited range of flow conditions only, the work presented in this thesis provides improved models for direct contact condensation. The models are developed in the form of diagrams and include: a condensation regime diagram, for predicting the condensation behaviour, a steam plume length diagram, for predicting the penetration distance of steam into water, and a heat transfer coefficient diagram. These models are derived using a wide range of data and therefore provide more accurate predictions compared with alternative models available in literature. In contrast to present models, the derived models presented in this work are constructed using an additional physical parameter to describe the process. The diagrams are validated against independent experiments and demonstrate close agreement. Furthermore, the predictions from the condensation regime diagram and steam plume length diagram are self-consistent. The models developed in this study are capable of predicting condensation behaviour for a wide range of initial conditions and can be used in conjunction with computational fluid dynamics techniques for direct contact condensation.