The challenge of sustainable local development at the site of the Tampakan Copper Project in the Philippines
This thesis concerns the welfare of communities hosting major mining projects in remote regions of the world. It is based upon analysis of ten recommendations made to mining companies by the World Bank in 1998. This was achieved through evaluation of five factors, each of which influences local mineral-driven development. These factors are; the impact of violence upon local development, the implications of antecedent social practices for formal structures, political power in the creation of local institutions, understanding of the physical realities of mining, and equity within the local mineral-driven development apparatus. These factors were tested in the context of the Tampakan Copper Project, operated by Western Mining Corporation, on the island of Mindanao, in the Philippines. Because violence and political power on one hand, and tradition and understanding on the other, are rooted in respectively national and local institutions, a dichotomous national-local methodology was devised. Research of 'national' factors such as the cause of conflicts in the region, and the legal rights of host communities for examples, were conducted through archival research and interviewing of key figures. Research of 'local' factors was achieved through the collation of various local data. Moreover, because there were five 'Tribal Councils' within the vicinity of the proposed minesite, a comparative assessment of local factors was possible. A methodology for measurement of Council performance was designed, which provided a means for reinforcing findings, and thereby extending evaluation of the requirements of local mineral-driven development.