Multipath routing and QoS provisioning in mobile ad hoc networks
A Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes that can communicate with each other using multihop wireless links without utilizing any fixed based-station infrastructure and centralized management. Each mobile node in the network acts as both a host generating flows or being destination of flows and a router forwarding flows directed to other nodes. Future applications of MANETs are expected to be based on all-IP architecture and be capable of carrying multitude real-time multimedia applications such as voice and video as well as data. It is very necessary for MANETs to have an efficient routing and quality of service (QoS) mechanism to support diverse applications. This thesis proposes an on-demand Node-Disjoint Multipath Routing protocol (NDMR) with low broadcast redundancy. Multipath routing allows the establishment of multiple paths between a single source and single destination node. It is also beneficial to avoid traffic congestion and frequent link breaks in communication because of the mobility of nodes. The important components of the protocol, such as path accumulation, decreasing routing overhead and selecting node-disjoint paths, are explained. Because the new protocol significantly reduces the total number of Route Request packets, this results in an increased delivery ratio, smaller end-to-end delays for data packets, lower control overhead and fewer collisions of packets. Although NDMR provides node-disjoint multipath routing with low route overhead in MANETs, it is only a best-effort routing approach, which is not enough to support QoS. DiffServ is a standard approach for a more scalable way to achieve QoS in any IP network and could potentially be used to provide QoS in MANETs because it minimises the need for signalling. However, one of the biggest drawbacks of DiffServ is that the QoS provisioning is separate from the routing process. This thesis presents a Multipath QoS Routing protocol for 111 supporting DiffServ (MQRD), which combines the advantages of NDMR and DiffServ. The protocol can classify network traffic into different priority levels and apply priority scheduling and queuing management mechanisms to obtain QoS guarantees.