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Title: The education and employment of girls in Norwich, 1870-1939
Author: Zmroczek, Jenny.
ISNI:       0000 0001 3578 0252
Awarding Body: University of East Anglia
Current Institution: University of East Anglia
Date of Award: 2004
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This thesis seeks to explore the relationship between education and employment in Norwich, a city which was said to offer `exceptional opportunities' for women's work. A major aim of education was the socialisation of children and, for girls, this resulted in a gendered curriculum with needlework taking up a large proportion of school time. Although girls' education aimed to prepare them for a domestic future rather than for the workplace, the skills learnt in school in the nineteenth century fitted the requirements of the local labour market surprisingly well. Girls who had left school were also able to choose from a variety of trade classes in Norwich which helped them in the workplace. Jobs were available in domestic service, shoemaking, clothes making and food and drink factories. Girls with a secondary education had few opportunities outside teaching as local employers were slow to recognise the benefits of employing women in shops and offices. Changes in the system of teacher training made it more difficult for poor girls to enter the profession but, after World War I, girls with a secondary education were in demand in the clerical and retail sectors. Girls leaving elementary schools were most likely to work in shoe factories where mechanisation created work for women. Whilst Norwich was an `oasis of unemployment' in the 1920s and 1930s, school leavers usually found it easy to obtain work, although there were few opportunities for advancement. This thesis argues that girls were constrained by interlinking issues of attitudes towards women's role, poverty, respectability and social status.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available