Meta-analysis of the population and phenotypic expression of CYP2C9/2C19 polymorphism on drug metabolism in different ethnicities
The clinical outcome of CYP2C9/2C19 allelic variation on the pharmacotherapy of epilepsy has been investigated; although many new antiepileptic drugs have been launched into the market, carbamazepine, phenobarbital and phenytoin are still the major agents in the pharmacotherapy of epilepsy. Therefore, phenytoin was chosen as a model AED and the effect of CYP2C9/2C19 genetic polymorphism on phenytoin metabolism was further examined. An estimation of the allele prevalence was undertaken for three CYP2C9/2C19 alleles respectively using a meta-analysis of studies that fit the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The prevalence of CYP2C9*1 is approximately 81%, 96%, 97% and 94% in Caucasian, Chinese, Japanese, African populations respectively; the pooled prevalence of CYP2C19*1 is about 86%, 57%, 58% and 85% in these ethnic populations respectively. However, the studies of association between CYP2C9/2C19 polymorphism and phenytoin metabolism failed to achieve any qualitative or quantitative conclusion. Therefore, mephenytoin metabolism was examined as a probe drug for association between CYP2C19 polymorphism and mephenytoin metabolic ratio. Similarly, analysis of association between CYP2C9 polymorphism and warfarin dose requirement was undertaken. It was confirmed that subjects carrying two mutated CYP2C19 alleles have higher S/R mephenytoin ratio due to deficient CYP2C19 enzyme activity. The studies of warfarin and CYP2C9 polymorphism did not provide a conclusive result due to poor comparability between studies. The genetic polymorphism of drug metabolism enzymes has been studied extensively, however other genetic factors, such as multiple drug resistance genes (MDR) and genes encoding ion channels, which may contribute to variability in function of drug transporters and targets, require more attention in future pharmacogenetic studies of antiepileptic drugs.