Critical evaluation of key performance indicator (KPI)-based performance management system (PMS) : a case study of the Department of Administration of Justice in Botswana
This research aims to contribute to the body of knowledge and advancement in the debates regarding 'Best Practice' PMS (HRM) vs. 'Best Fit'. The main objective of this research is to investigate PMS existing in the Department of Administration of Justice in Botswana. The research identifies gaps between 'Best Practice PMS (HRM) and PMS which currently exists in the department and suggests changes in order to reduce gaps between 'Best Practice' PMS (HRM) and PMS current practice. The research also explores the applicability of 'Best Practice' PMS (HRM) in the context of a developing country. According to the 'Best Practice' PMS (HRM) the core process entails observing the internal and extemal environment of an organisation, planning and designing a PMS, acting on the PMS and reviewing the PMS. The 'Best Practice' PMS (HRM) process, frameworks and PMS contextual factors were used to guide data collection and data analysis in this research. The department as selected because of its importance in Botswana regarding its responsibility for issues relating to the constitution, human rights, safety, reliability, stability, independence, impartiality, gaining confidence and respect inside and outside the country. This research aims to address some of the gaps identified in the literature reviewed. The literature revealed that most of the previous studies concentrated on the PMS and performance measurement systems in private organisations, particularly on PMS in the context of developed countries. This research adopted a single-case study approach in order to gain in-depth understanding regarding PMS existing in the case under investigation. Purposeful sampling technique was applied to select the department as case in the public sector in Botswana. Quantitative and qualitative data collection methods were used. The key findings from this research suggest that, to a certain degree, the department followed the PMS existing in the department was Key Performance Indicators (KPI), Based PMS. The major gaps identified in this research include the lack of integration of HR strategy into PMS and organisational vision, strategic goals and objectives not linked with team and individuals. Furthermore, the department used a 'Top-Down' approach to PMS. Although there were some strengths to KPI-Based PMS existing in the department, there were some departures from 'Best Practice' PMS (HRM). The research suggests that integration of a HRM strategy into PMS; linking department's vision, strategic goals with team and individuals; training and developing staff in PMS; a bottom-up approach to PMS and training and developing managers would enhance PMS in the department. Furthermore, improving communication, commitment, support and ownership by senior and middle managers in the department would strengthen the KPI-Based PMS. Since PMS is a new concept in Botswana, future research should further explore and inv estigate the usage and impact of PMS in the department and the public sector at large. Findings from this research have provided the context under which KPI-Based PMS could be applied. Though findings are specific to Department of Administration of Justice in Botswana, multiple case studies would further strengthen research regarding the applicability of a KPI Based PMS in the context of a developing country.