Designing a quantum computer based on pulsed electron spin resonance
Electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments are used to assess the possibilities for processing quantum information in the electronic and nuclear spins of endohedral fullerenes. It is shown that ¹⁵N@C₆₀ can be used for universal two-qubit quantum computing. The first step in this scheme is to initialize the nuclear and electron spins that each store one qubit. This was achieved with a magnetic field of 8.6 T at 3 K, by applying resonant RF and microwave radiation. This dynamic nuclear polarization technique made it possible to show that the nuclear T₁ time of ¹⁵N@C₆₀ is on the order of twelve hours at 4.2 K. The electronic T₂ is the limiting decoherence time for the system. At 3.7 K, this can be extended to 215 μs by using amorphous sulphur as the solvent. Pulse sequences are described that could perform all single-qubit gates to the two qubits independently, as well as CNOT gates. After these manipulations, the value of the qubits should be measured. Two techniques are demonstrated for this, by measuring the nuclear spin. Sc@C₈₂ could also be useful for quantum computation. By comparing ESR measurements with density functional theory calculations, it is shown how the orientation of a Sc@C₈₂ molecule in an applied magnetic field affects the molecule's Zeeman and hyperfine coupling. Hence the g- and A-tensors are written in the coordinate frame of the molecule. Pulsed ESR measurements show that the decoherence time at 20 K is 13 μs, which is 20 times longer than had been previously reported. Carbon nanotubes have been filled with endohedral fullerenes, forming 1D arrays that could lead to a scalable quantum computer. N@C₀₆ and Sc@C₈₂ have been used for this filling in various concentrations. ESR measurements of these samples are consistent with simulations of the dipolar coupling.