Grinding processes and their effects on surface integrity
The introduction of high performance grinding machines in combination with the latest superabrasive technology has the potential to impact significantly on existing process chains. The aim of the research was to look at both the high and low rate removal grinding processes and their effects on the surface integrity, as a means to exploit the above technologies. A major objective was to determine the feasibility of High Efficiency Deep Grinding (HEDG) in cylindrical plunge grinding. HEDG is a high speed removal process which differs from conventional forms of grinding in that it uses large depths of cut together with high feedrates. Together, these changes affect the thermal energy partitioning within the work zone. Through this work an understanding of the process conditions enabled the development of this process, such that prevention of thermal damage to the finished workpiece surface is achievable. At the opposite extreme to the high material removal rates of HEDG, kvdrk was carried out in the high precision finish grinding regime. Developments *ere undertaken to look at the implementation of a modified path into the normal cylindrical plunge grinding action, in a process referred to as Superfinish Grinding. The aim of this process being to demonstrate an improvement to the surface texture primarily through a reduction in grinding directionality. Surface integrity is an important consideration in the development of any grinding process. Damage as a result of grinding is predominately of a thermal nature and results in changes to the material properties in the near surface region. One such change is the residual stress, which was measured using Barkhausen Noise intensity instrumentation, which provided a reliable early indication to a build up in thermal energy. Developments in thermal modelling supported by temperature measurements provided a better understanding of the HEDG regime. The model employed new energy partitioning theories together with circular arc modelling of conditions along the contact length. A model was derived to predict the surface finish produced with the Superfinish Grinding approach, this again provided an increased understanding of the grinding process. Industrial trials have shown how HEDG can be implemented on standard production machine tools for the cylindrical plunge grinding of crankshaft components. The process demonstrated the potential for improved surface integrity, whilst maintaining surface finish and form accuracy. The same grinding machine was also used to generate high quality surfaces using a Superfinish Grinding process. Roughness values of the order of 0.11um RQ were routinely obtained exhibiting reduced levels of grinding directionality. Thus, using a single machine tool and a single set-up, exceptionally high stock removal rates are achievable in a roughing cycle followed by superfinishing to generate the required surface characteristics and profile.