God will judge each one according to his works : the investigation into the use of Psalm 62:13 in early Jewish literature and the New Testament
The current thesis examines the use of Ps 62:13 (61:13 LXX) in the context of judgment according to works in early Jewish literature and the NT. The objective of this thesis is to challenge the majority view about the theme of judgment according to works in early Judaism and the NT. According to this view, the literature of early Judaism and the NT does not use any particular OT passage(s) when they refer to the idea of divine judgment according to works: they draw on a theological conviction which is rooted in the OT or simply use expressions or concepts from the OT. However, we argue that most of the passages under investigation allude to Ps 62:13 (Psi 61:13) and the whole body of the psalm. Accordingly, this study argues that the references to judgment according to works in the passages studied here are to be understood as scriptural interpretation, interpretation of Ps 62 (61 LXX) in particular. In part 1 ('Prolegomena'), we begin by establishing the need for and significance of our study. We look into two areas in which Ps 62 has not received sufficient treatment: studies on judgment according to works and similar topics, and studies on the use of the OT in the NT. Also, the present thesis highlights the significance of the topic 'judgment according to works' in Pauline scholarship, especially in the light of the challenge by the New Perspective. After stating the limitations of our study, we employ two tools to examine the use of Ps 62:13 in the context of judgment according to works: intertextu˙ality, and Jewish mediation of scripture. In addition, this study uses five criteria to determine the presence of Ps 62:13 in later writings. Then, Chapter 1 examines the Hebrew text of Ps 62 and its Greek translation (Psi 61), focusing on the major themes. Part 2 (chapters 2-7) looks into the use of Ps 62:13 (61:13 LXX) in early Jewish literature up to the end of the first century BC. We deal with five works from the Second Temple period: Sirach, 1 Enoch, Apostrophe to Zion (11Q5 22:1-15), Psalms of Solomon and Pseudo-Philo's LAB. The first section of each chapter considers whether each writer uses Ps 62:13 (61:13 LXX) in the passages under discussion. After establishing on the basis of our criteria that these passages make use of the psalm, the second section of each chapter deals with interpretations of the psalm in the context of judgment according to works. Chapter 7 summarizes our six findings in the use of Ps 62:13 in early Jewish literature: (1) in the passages under examination Ps 62:13 (61:13 LXX) is used along with other themes drawn from Ps 62; (2) Ps 62:13 is employed in the context of the restoration of Jerusalem; (3) in some passages, Ps 62:13 (Ps 61:13 LXX) is mainly used to refer to punishment/condemnation; (4) although it overlaps (3), Ps 62:13 is used in the context of the punishment of the Gentiles and the vindication of Israel; (5) the criteria of judgment (vindication and condemnation) are clearly similar to those in Ps 62; (6) Ps 62:13 is sometimes employed in the context of an eschatological or postmortem event in a soteriological sense. Part 3 (chapters 8-12) is devoted to examining the use of Ps 62 in the New Testament. In this part, we discuss Matthew, Romans, 2 Timothy, 1 Peter and Revelation. It aims to deal with how early Jewish interpretations of the psalm (Ps 62:13 in particular) influenced the NT writers when they employed Ps 62:13 in the context of divine judgment according to works. As in part 2, the first section of each chapter considers whether Ps 62:13 is used in each NT book under scrutiny and the second part of each chapter looks into its interpretations. The last section of each chapter summarizes what we have found in each NT book. We find that Matthew uses Ps 62:13 while his use of the noun (pirho a&d14; zeta&igr;sigma) reflects Sir 32:24. Also, it is found that Paul interacts with early Jewish interpretation of Ps 62:13, as it is presented in Sir 32:24-26 and Ps Sol 2. Our analysis of 2 Timothy shows that the author uses Ps 62:13 directly without depending on early Jewish mediation of the psalm. The use of Ps 62:13 in 1 Peter indicates that the author employs the passage from Ps 62 in a similar way that Ps Sol 2 interprets the psalm. Lastly, our examination of Revelation shows that John uses Ps 62:13 to refer to the criteria of judgment in Ps 62 and interprets the psalm in the context of the establishment of the New Jerusalem. The close link between judgment according to works and Jerusalem is found in Ps Sol 2 and 17 and 11Q5 22. John uses the psalm in a similar way. The last part ('Conclusion') rounds off our examination of the use of Ps 62:13 in early Judaism and early Christianity. Here we summarize our findings in five areas: (1) the references to judgment according to works as being clearly based on Ps 62:13 (61:13 LXX); (2) the respect for the original context of Ps 62; (3) the influence of early Jewish interpretations of the psalm on the NT writers; (4) the eschatologizing of judgment according to works and its implications for the covenantal nomism hypothesis; and (5) the similarity and dissimilarity in understanding of the criteria of judgment according to works. Lastly, we indicate that further study is needed to examine the use of Ps 62:13 in later works such as 2 Baruch, Joseph & Aseneth, 1 Clement, 2 Clement and the Apocalypse of Peter.