Identification and exploration of the managerial behaviours associated with employee innovation
This thesis presents nine studies aiming to identify and explore the managerial behaviours that are associated with employee innovation. The first study adopted an exploratory approach and used Critical Incident Technique (Flanagan, 1954) and Repertory Grid interviews (Kelly, 1955) to identify 15 managerial behaviours that are associated with innovation. The second study then explored the underlying factor structure of these 15 managerial behaviours, using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to identify a four-factor model (n=386). The four factors; Interpersonal Style, Feedback, Role Modelling and Empowerment can, be plotted on two axes: 1) ideas- focused versus global behaviours, and 2) employee-focused versus task-focused behaviours. The subsequent three studies aimed to establish construct validation of this four-factor model. Study 3 examined the four-factor model in relation to two prominent models of leadership: 1) Leader-Member Exchange theory (LMX) and 2) the Full Range Leadership Model. Study 4 explored the four-factor model in relation to the organisational characteristics previously shown to influence innovation. Study 5 examined the associations between the four-factor model and manager personality, using the Big Five model of personality and the Innovation Potential Indicator. Overall the result demonstrated evidence of construct validity. Study 6 and 7 then provided preliminary evidence of criterion-related validation of the four-factor model. The final study then explored how the four managerial behaviour relate to the process of the innovation. The results indicate that managers influence all three phases of the nnovation process; idea generation, idea exploration and development and idea implementation. In the final chapter the overall findings, are discussed outlining the practical and theoretical implications of the research. The results are discussed in relation to the Cognitive Evaluation Theory of motivation, exploring possible ways in which a manager may influence an employee's motivation to innovate.