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Title: Sustainable, proportionate and cost-effective action plans to deliver air quality objectives within air quality management areas
Author: Leksmono, Nurul Soraya.
ISNI:       0000 0001 3608 0119
Awarding Body: University of the West of England, Bristol,
Current Institution: University of the West of England, Bristol
Date of Award: 2005
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This thesis examines the process of Local Air Quality Management (LAQM) in English and Welsh local authorities that have air pollution problems arising from industrial emissions. The Environment Act 1995 imposes LAQM duties on local authorities. The research explores the relationship of the LAQM regime introduced by the Environment Act 1995, and the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control regime regulated by the Pollution Prevention and Control Act 1999. The work examines the extent to which local authorities and the Environment Agency collaborate in the review, assessment and action planning stages of LAQM. This study gives particular attention to the application of the principles of sustainability, proportionality and cost-effectiveness within the development of air quality action plans. The research methodology consists of an appraisal of local authority air quality review and assessment reports, a questionnaire survey, and case studies in five local authorities. Two main regimes of air pollution control are also being implemented in other EU countries (the Air Quality Framework Directive, AQFD, and the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive) and thus case studies were carried out in Spain and Sweden to compare the experience of air quality management and industrial pollution control in England and Wales to other European countries. Theoretical air pollution modelling was carried out to explore some of the issues associated with point source modelling for LAQM purposes. Triangulation of methods has revealed how the LAQM system works and thus has achieved the research objectives. A small number of local authorities in England and Wales identified industrial emissions as the source of air quality problems in their localities but the significance of emissions from industrial sources is comparatively small when compared to transport related emissions. Questionnaire surveys and case studies have revealed fugitive emission sources of particulate matter as a major contributor to a breach of Air Quality Objectives, which consequently leads to Air Quality Management Areas (AQMAs) 1 declarations. It is apparent from this research that local authorities have different levels of capability in managing their local air quality. Although the central government have provided guidance and support for local authorities, a variety of approaches undertaken in relation to technical and management aspects of LAQM were identified. This research has also identified a clear gap between Member States in complying with the EU air quality Limit Values, and each country has a different system and interpretation of the AQFD. The study shows that the Environment Agency and local authorities have been working in partnership in LAQM, although inconsistent patterns of communication between the two stakeholders are revealed through the case studies. The degree of collaboration corresponds to personal interest of the Environment Agency and local authority officers and to a lesser extent, the significance of the impact of the Environment Agency regulated processes in the AQMA. Collaboration and communication is judged an essential precondition for policy integration and implementation in an action plan designed to improve air quality in AQMA. This thesis provides local authorities with air pollution problems arising, at least in part, from industrial emissions with a conceptual model for the preparation of sustainable, proportionate, and cost-effective air quality action plans. Drawing upon both quantitative and qualitative data, a theoretical position is presented which argues that the balance between the scientific assessment of air quality and the social, economic, and political factors is critical in determining sustainable, proportionate and cost-effective management solutions. Local authorities studied in case studies implemented these principles according to the importance of each factor at the local level. The project concludes with a suite of recommendations for the future practice of air quality management in relation to industrial pollution sources. This includes recommendations to improve co-ordination and collaboration between all stakeholders, and a closer link between the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control and Local Air Quality Management regimes.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available