Evangelical Episcopalians in nineteenth-century Scotland
This thesis deals with the theology and development of the Evangelical Episcopalian movement in nineteenth-century Scotland. Such a study facilitates the construction of a detailed doctrinal and social profile of these Churchmen, hitherto unavailable. In the introduction an extensive investigation is provided, identifying individuals within the group and assessing their numerical strength. Chapter 2 shows the locations of Evangelical Episcopalian churches and suggests reasons for their geographical distribution. Chapter 3 investigates some sermons and writings of various clergy and laypersons, highlighting the doctrinal beliefs of Scottish Evangelical Episcopalians and placing them within the spectrum of Evangelical Anglicanism and showing affinities with Scottish Presbyterianism. Chapter 4 concerns the lifestyle of members of the group, covering areas such as marriage, family, leisure and philanthropy. Chapter 5 provides a numerical analysis of the social make-up of various congregations paying particular attention to the success achieved in reaching the working classes. Chapters 6 and 7 examine the issues faced by Scottish Evangelical Episcopalians in an age of increasing Tractarian and Roman Catholic activity. Topics covered include the theology of baptism and the communion service. The contrast between Evangelical belief and that of orthodox Scottish High Churchmen and Virtualists is clarified. Chapter 8 explains the factors contributing to the secession of D. T. K. Drummond from the Scottish Episcopal Church and the formation of the English Episcopal movement. Further disruptions are discussed in Chapter 9. Chapter 10 provides a detailed analysis of the development and eventual fragmentation of English Episcopalianism. Chapter 11 concludes the thesis with an evaluation of the contribution of English Episcopalianism to the history of the Scottish Episcopal Church and the reasons for its emergence. The thesis thus provides a detailed examination of the motives which drove the adherents of this important facet of nineteenth-century British Evangelicalism.