The effects of atmosphere conditions on gamma-ray astronomy
The High Energetic Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) experiment is an array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov (IAC) telescopes of the next generation, with enlarged mirrors and advanced detector electronics compared to its predecessors. As a member of the international H.E.S.S. collaboration, the Durham 7-rау astronomy group took over the responsibility for design, construction and commissioning of calibration systems for the H.E.S.S. telescopes and atmospheric monitoring devices. The atmosphere is an essential part of the detector system for the IAC technique, monitoring of the atmosphere's parameter is therefore important for energy calibration of the detector and variability studies of 7-ray sources to distinguish between detector and source fluctuations. A weather station, several infrared radiometers and an infrared LIDAR system have been installed to provide constant monitoring of all relevant parameters. This thesis reports about the work performed for the design and commissioning of the calibration module. Furthermore, the technicalities of the LIDAR system and the IR radiometer, their use in terms of 7-ray astronomy, especially studies about the variability of zenith angle dependencies and the correlation with other atmospheric parameters and telescope trigger rates are discussed.