Baseline study on chemical composition of Brunei Darussalam rivers
The research provides data of pH and conductivity, some anions (e. g. fluoride, chloride, bromide, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate), monovalent cations (e. g sodium, ammonium and potassium), divalent cations (e. g calcium and magnesium) heavy metals (e. g. iron, copper, zinc, nickel, cobalt, cadmium and manganese) and organic compounds – from water samples of rivers of Brunei Darussalam, namely, Brunei River, Belait River, Tutong River and Temburong River. The higher values of certain parameters with respect to the acceptable standard limits for river water indicate the pollution in river water samples of the study area, make the waters unsuitable for various applications and do pose a human health hazard. The pH levels in Brunei Darussalam is quite reassuring and mostly safe. Although there are some stretches of rivers that show slightly lower levels of pH, there is no cause for any alarm as these waterways are not sources of drinking water. As for anions and cations, the only anion of significant levels detected in Brunei Rivers is chloride whereas only monovalent cation detected in significant levels, is sodium. The concentrations of chloride and sodium ions are below the standard concentrations. Brunei Rivers are still free from chloride and sodium pollution. For heavy metals, only iron is detected in Brunei Rivers. Brunei being a oil based country experiments were done to identify levels of a numbers of significant toxic organic compounds, including, toluene and benzene which have been detected in the waters of the oil mining district of Belait District but are within normal limits. The use of a photolytic cell system to achieve the photodegradation of benzene, toluene, ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA) and the surfactant – hexadecyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide (C19H42NBr) is reported. The system has been optimised by investigating the effects of the addition of hydrogen peroxide (H202) as an oxidant and the addition of titanium dioxide (TiO2) as a catalyst. The results show that the photolytic system can be used to achieve >99% degradation of organic contaminants. The research also includes a final chapter on management system which covers water protection, pollution control and solid waste management in Brunei. In addition to investigating various factors of the solid waste management in Brunei, the researcher has also exposed some of the weaknesses that need immediate addressing. Various measures have been suggested to make Brunei's water more efficient. Moreover, ways of preserving the high quality of Brunei's water figures in this chapter.