NMR spectroscopy in the presence of ultrasound and other perturbations
The work described in this thesis has been concerned with exploring the potential uses of ultrasound in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The NMR spectra of liquids provide detailed structural information that may be deduced from the chemical shifts and spin-spin coupling, that are evident in the narrow resonances, arising from some of the nuclear broadening interactions being reduced to zero. In the solid state, all of the nuclear broadening interactions are present and broad lines in the NMR spectrum are observed. Current techniques employed to reduce the line widths in solids are based on coherent averaging techniques such as MAS NMR1,2 which can remove first order interactions. Recently DOR3 and DAS4 have become available to remove higher order interactions. SINNMR (Sonically Induced Narrowing of the NMR spectra of solids) has been reported by Homer et al5 and developed by Homer and Howard6 to reduce the line widths of solids. The basis of their work is the proposal that a colloidal suspension of solid particles can be made to move like large molecules by using ultrasonic agitation. The advantage of the technique is that the particles move incoherently removing all of the nuclear interactions responsible for broad lines. This thesis describes work on the extension of SINNMR by showing that the line width of 27AI and 11B for the glass Na20/B203/AI203 can be reduced by placing solid particles in a colloidal suspension. Further line width reduction is possible by applying ultrasound, at 2 MHz, of sufficient intensity. It is proposed that a cavitation field is responsible for imparting sufficient rotational motion to the solid particles to partially average the nuclear interactions responsible for broad lines. Rapid stirring of the colloidal suspension generates turbulent flow, however, the motion is insufficient to narrow the line widths for 27AI in the glass. Investigations of sonochemical reactions for in situ rate measurements by NMR have been made. 8y using the Weissler reaction7, it has been shown that ultrasonic cavitation is possible up to 10MHz. Preliminary studies have been carried out into the rate of ultrasonic polymerisation of methylmethacrylate by NMR. Long range order in liquid crystals can imposed when they are aligned in the presence a magnetic field. The degree of alignment can be monitored by NMR using, for example a deuterated solute added to the liquid crystal8. Ultrasonic streaming can then be employed to deflect the directors of the liquid crystal from their equilibrium position, resulting in a change In the NMR spectrum. The angle of deflection has been found for the thermotropic liquid crystal (I35) to be ca, 35° and for the lyotropic (ZLI-1167) to be ca, 20°, Mechanical stirring can used to re- orientate the liquid crystal but was found to give a smaller deflection, In a separate study, that did not use ultrasound, it has been found that the signal to noise ratio of 13C NMR signals can be enhanced by rapidly stirring a Iiquid. Accelerating the diffusion of nuclei out of the coil region enables M0 to be re-established more rapidly than the normal relaxation process. This allows the pulse repetition rate to be reduced without saturating the spin system. The influence of varying the relaxation delay, acquisition time and inter-pulse delay have been studied and parameters optimised. By studying cholesterol the technique was found to be most effective for nuclei with long relaxation times, such as quaternary carbon sites.