Gram-positive infections in patients with end-stage renal disease
In the study, the incidence of haemodialysis catheter-associated infection was established with the Meditrend audit tool. This tool was used to assess the infection outcomes of catheter insertion and management procedures until the catheter was explanted. Introduction of a catheter management protocol decreased the incidence of catheter-related infection. Staphylococcal species recovered from episodes of haemodialysis catheter-associated infection and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)-associated peritonitis were genotyped by determination of macrorestriction profiles with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This highlighted horizontal transfer of microorganisms between different patients and the environment. The phenotypic characteristics of these strains were also investigated to determine characteristics that could be used as markers for dialysis catheter-associated infection. The expression of elastase, lipase and esterase by CNS was significantly associated with infection. A rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay incorporating a novel staphylococcal antigen (lipid S) was used to evaluate the early detection of anti-staphylococcal immunoglobulin gamma in patient sera. The comparison of culture positive and culture negative patients demonstrated a steady state of immune activation in both groups. However anti-lipid S serum antibody titres > 1000 were found to be a predictor of infection. The effect on faecal carriage of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) and Clostridium difficile toxins in patients treated with CAPD when empiric cephalosporin therapy was substituted for piperacillin/tazobactam was investigated. The introduction of piperacillin/tazobactam demonstrated a decrease in the faecal carriage of VRE.