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Title: The effects of air pollution particles on clearance mechanisms within the lung
Author: Barlow, Peter George
Awarding Body: Edinburgh Napier University
Current Institution: Edinburgh Napier University
Date of Award: 2004
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The effects of inhaled air pollution particles on lung clearance mechanisms is an important factor in understanding how the mammalian lung deals with such pollutants and, as such, how exposure to these pollutants can be regulated. The nanoparticle(diameter S lOOnm) and transition metal components of PMIO (particulate matter with a diameter less than lO~m) have been implicated as playing major roles in the impairment of alveolar macrophage function and the subsequent retention of particles in the respiratory system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of components of PMIO on macrophage functions both directly, by examining macrophage phagocytosis and migration, and indirectly, by studying peripheral factors affecting macrophagefunction such as recruitment by type II cells and complement based mechanisms. We hypothesised that the alveolar epithelial type II cell line would release leukocyte chemoattractants in response to particle exposure and that this could be measured by use of a macrophage migration assay. A sub-toxic dose (125 ~g/ml)of surrogate air pollutionparticles (fine and nanoparticle carbon black and titanium dioxide) was established by measuring LOH release from a murine alveolar macrophage cell line (1774.2) and an alveolar epithelial type II cell line (L-2) in response to particle exposure. Optimisation ofa chemotaxis assay and measurement of macrophage migration towards conditioned medium obtained from the particle-exposed type II cells was conducted and it was determined that carbon black nanoparticles induced type II cells to secrete a chemoattractant that resulted in significant increases in macrophage migration compared to the negative control. This was in contrast to other particle types tested in this study which did not induce any increases in macrophage migration. It was also hypothesised that complement proteins could be involved in macrophage recruitment to sites of particle deposition and, as such, the migration of macrophages towards particle exposed blood serum was examined in vitro. Foetal bovine serum (FBS) was exposed to fine and nanoparticle caroon black and titanium dioxide (l-Smg/ml) for 2 hours. It was found, in accord with the previous study involving type II cells, that carbon black nanoparticles could activate the generation of chemotactic factors in serum that could subsequently induce significant increases (p < 0.001) in macrophage migration when serum was diluted to 10% using serum-free RPMI 1640 culture medium. This effect could be ameliorated by co-incubating the particle-treated serum in the presence of the antioxidant Trolox suggesting that oxidative stress played a role in the generation of the chemoattractant molecules. However, incubation of the serum with a pure oxidant at a range of doses did not result in the generation of chemotactic molecules suggesting that another factor could be involved in the chemoattractant generation. Further investigation to determine the exact molecular mechanism behind the chemoattractant generation is warranted. In contrast to the previous studies, we have also found evidence that components of PM₁₀ can cause decreased efficacy of macrophage clearance mechanisms in vivo and in vitro. It was hypothesised that PM₁₀ instillation would result in a decrease in macrophage phagocytic potential and an increase in chemotactic potential ex vivo. Rats were instilled with 125 and 250μg of PM₁₀ collected from North Kensington, London or sterile saline (negative control). Post-instillation (18 hours), significantly elevated concentrations of TNFa were detected in the BAL fluid together with a significant increase in the number of BAL neutrophils. Phagocytosis and chemotaxis assays conducted with BAL macrophages ex vivo showed that macrophage migration towards a positive chemoattractant, Zymosan Activated Serum (ZAS), was significantly lower than the macrophages obtained from the negative control rats. Macrophage phagocytosis of latex beads ex vivo was also found to be significantly decreased when PM₁₀ was visible inside the cell. An in vitro study where a macrophage cell line (J774.Al) was exposed to a low dose of nanoparticle carbon black (31.25μg) together with varying concentrations (100μM - 100nM) of zinc chloride (ZnCl₂) was also conducted. Exposure of macrophages to nanoparticle carbon black and zinc chloride alone induced a decrease in macrophage phagocytosis. It was found that when macrophages were co-exposed to nanoparticle carbon black and ZnCl₂, there was an additive decrease in macrophage phagocytic potential. The results contained within this manuscript demonstrate that the components of PM₁₀ can induce adverse effects on specific aspects of macrophage clearance mechanisms, but that nanoparticles can also stimulate the production of chemoattractants to aid in the recruitment of phagocytes and subsequent particle clearance. Although a contrary relationship appears to exist between these findings, the recruitment of leukocytes in response to particulate exposure is a mechanism that supports particle clearance. However, the retardation of phagocytic and chemotactic mechanisms in particle exposed macrophages may help to explain the increased toxicity, inflammation and retention time observed with nanoparticle inhalation.
Supervisor: Stone, Vicki ; MacCallum, Janis Sponsor: Edinburgh Napier University
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Lung disease ; air pollution ; respiratory health ; 616.24 Lung diseases ; QR Microbiology ; Applied microbiology ; Immunology and infection ; Pollutants