Dynamic magnetic effects in amorphous microwires for sensors and coding applications
This work is devoted to the study of the dynamic properties of magnetic amorphous wires, in particular, glass-coated microwires, which have small diameters (5-30 microns), outstanding soft magnetic behaviour with a high permeability and low coercivity, yet, possess a well-defined magnetic structure. First part of my PhD research has been devoted to the investigation of a bi-stable magnetisation reversal in glass-coated amorphous microwires. In contrast to traditional approaches, where characteristics of the magnetisation reversal are analysed as a consequence of the eddy current effect, l have applied stochastic methods for modelling the remagnetisation reversal in the microwires with axial anisotropy. While the eddy current approach, widely discussed in literature, was based on the single domain model, proposed stochastic approach takes into account a multi-domain state of studied samples. A modified stochastic Neel-Brown model of the magnetisation reversal has been proposed enabling the explanation of number of characteristic parameters of the microwires with axial magnetisation. Such important parameters of Barkhausen discontinuity as a mean switching field and a standard deviation of the switching field distribution have been investigated experimentally for understanding the influence of extrinsic factors such as a slew rate of the alternating magnetic field on applications operation. A deep understanding of the remagnetisation process in amorphous the microwires with axial anisotropy was successfully applied in development of a new type of the remote magnetic interrogation system. My reading system allows the large Barkhausen jump to be detected without actual contact between the magnetic microwire and the magnetic field detector. Experiments show that the detection will be possible at a distance of approximately 100-150 mm from the detecting sensor. A very low cost and easily repetitive amorphous microwires with axial anisotropy are . incontrovertibly best materials for Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS) applications. During the study of the microwires with axial anisotropy and development of the application based on them, I took part in the investigation of unusual coding methods of the amorphous microwires using a localised laser annealing treatment. This treatment produces a multi-pulse code within the wire and therefore adds to the information contained within the wire, improving reliability and security. I developed and used a magnetic interrogation system allowing an accurate and reliable test and analysis of the studied samples. The second part of my PhD research has included investigations of microwires with circumferential and helical anisotropies. The main interest in these materials is due to their applications for high-performance magnetic and stress sensors. Within this research project, the microwires with circumferential/helical anisotropy have been studied in a broad range of frequencies. A number of dynamic effects have been experimentally obtained and analysed. In particular, a detailed investigation of dynamic circular hysteresis (10kHz-300kHz) has been carried out allowing explanation of different behaviour of the materials with circumferential/helical anisotropy at different frequencies. The experimental curves are proposed to be analysed in terms of field dependence of characteristic permeabilities: domain wall displacements (reversible and irreversible) and magnetisation rotation. It was established that these permeabilities have different field behaviour. That explains different MI patterns at relatively low frequencies (less than a few MHz) and relatively high frequencies (more than 10 MHz). Further, some special features of the Magneto-Impedance effect in the microwires with a circumferential anisotropy such as off-diagonal impedance and microwave impedance have been considered. In this research, the former presents a considerable interest for development of linear magnetic sensors and the latter can find application in tuneable microwave materials and devices. As a result of this study several types of linear, bi-directional MI sensors were developed. I also developed new MI sensing approaches (such as off-diagonal response) and a new high performance detection technique allowing us to improve sensitivity, bandwidth, and linearity at low cost and simple construction. The last part of the PhD research has been devoted to an investigation of the stress-impedance in the ultra high-frequency (UHF) band (300MHz-3 GHz). Based on the experimental investigation, a new type of a stress-sensitive composite material is proposed. The microwave effective permittivity of such material depends on mechanical stresses. These composite materials opens up new possibilities for remote monitoring of stress with the use of microwave free-space techniques. This kind of composite material can be characterised as a 'sensing medium', which images the mechanical stress distribution inside construction or on its surface.