The Imperial Garrison in New Zealand, 1840-1870, with particular reference to Auckland
The object of this thesis is to look at the neglected area of the social interaction between Imperial regiments and society in a colony. The chosen colony is New Zealand, looking with particular reference at its original capital of Auckland between 1840 and 1870. This period encompasses the Maori or New Zealand Wars. However, it is not the intention to look at these campaigns, but to examine how the regiments of the Imperial garrison interacted on a day-to-day basis with colonial society in both peace and war. Chapter One establishes the existing literature with regard to the impact of a military presence on colonial societies using the relatively few examples of work done on Canada, South Africa, India and Australia, as well as the limited information available on the impact of garrisons in Britain itself. Indeed, comparisons will also be made with the role of the United States army in westwards frontier expansion, on which some useful studies exist. Chapter Two is also general in nature in the sense that it discusses the reasons for the introduction of Imperial regiments into New Zealand and those factors contributing to their continued presence until 1870, as well as the fluctuations in military strength. Moving to the particular, Chapter Three illustrates how Auckland became the Imperial Military Headquarters in New Zealand and the development of its military infrastructure as the town itself expanded. The two principal establishments became Fort Britomart and the Albert Barracks. It will also be shown that Governor FitzRoy was responsible for the construction of the Albert Barracks, not Sir George Grey as is generally supposed. The intention of Chapter Four is to examine in detail the economic impact of the garrison on Auckland, primarily by means of investigating how the army was supplied. In particular, local newspapers are utilised as a medium through which to trace how civilians tendered for Commissariat contracts. Chapter Five discusses the health of the Imperial regiments posted to New Zealand to establish whether service there implied the same kind of potential death sentence as that in some other colonies. Chapter Six then examines both the discipline of Imperial regiments in Auckland and wider issues of social interaction since, in other colonies, the extent of indiscipline could radically affect civil-military relations. In terms ofthe wider issues, there is examination of such aspects of the relationship between soldiers and civilians as sport, entertainment, local politics, and civic ceremony. Chapter Seven will be then offer conclusions on the inter-relationship and inter-dependence between soldiers and civilians in Auckland.