Paul's use of the Old Testament in Romans 9:1-9 : an intertextual and theological exegesis
This investigation builds upon recent developments in the study of Paul's use of Scripture that centre around the concept of "intertextuality". An exegetical method is proposed, dubbed "intertextual exegesis", which incorporates into a thorough traditional exegesis a comprehensive analysis of Paul's use of Scripture against the background of interpretive traditions surrounding the texts alluded to, with great emphasis placed on analysing the original contexts of Paul's citations and allusions. Such an intertextual exegesis is conducted in Romans 9:1-9 with an awareness of the broader unit of chapters 9-11 especially, and also the epistle as a whole. It is found that many of the themes Paul deals with in Romans 9-11 are also present in ancient Jewish and Christian interpretive traditions surrounding the passages he invokes, and more importantly, that Paul's scriptural quotations and allusions function as pointers to their broad original contexts, from which he developed much of the form, content and direction of his argument, holding significance for a number of exegetical details as well as broader themes and rhetorical movements. In Romans 9:1-9, understood intertextually, Paul argues that despite the fact that ethnic Israel has been rejected and the word of God spoken to Israel has been fulfilled in the Church made up of Jews and Gentiles, the word of God has not failed, because the true Israel is the community of those who believed in Christ whether Jew or Gentile. The final chapter seeks to draw conclusions concerning the significance of Paul's use of the Old Testament in Romans 9:1-9 for the exegesis and theology of Romans and for Pauline intertextuality. The identity of the true people of God is central to Romans 9-11 and the epistle. And Paul's use of Scripture is contextual and referential, calling for attention to Pauline intertextuality in standard exegetical procedure.