Highly efficient low-level feature extraction for video representation and retrieval
Witnessing the omnipresence of digital video media, the research community has raised the question of its meaningful use and management. Stored in immense multimedia databases, digital videos need to be retrieved and structured in an intelligent way, relying on the content and the rich semantics involved. Current Content Based Video Indexing and Retrieval systems face the problem of the semantic gap between the simplicity of the available visual features and the richness of user semantics. This work focuses on the issues of efficiency and scalability in video indexing and retrieval to facilitate a video representation model capable of semantic annotation. A highly efficient algorithm for temporal analysis and key-frame extraction is developed. It is based on the prediction information extracted directly from the compressed domain features and the robust scalable analysis in the temporal domain. Furthermore, a hierarchical quantisation of the colour features in the descriptor space is presented. Derived from the extracted set of low-level features, a video representation model that enables semantic annotation and contextual genre classification is designed. Results demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the temporal analysis algorithm that runs in real time maintaining the high precision and recall of the detection task. Adaptive key-frame extraction and summarisation achieve a good overview of the visual content, while the colour quantisation algorithm efficiently creates hierarchical set of descriptors. Finally, the video representation model, supported by the genre classification algorithm, achieves excellent results in an automatic annotation system by linking the video clips with a limited lexicon of related keywords.