Analytical and simulation performance modelling of indoor infrared wireless data communications protocols
The Infrared (IR) optical medium provides an alternative to radio frequencies (RF) for low cost, low power and short-range indoor wireless data communications. Low-cost optoelectronic components with an unregulated IR spectrum provide the potential for very high-speed wireless communication with good security. However IR links have a limited range and are susceptible to high noise levels from ambient light sources. The Infrared Data Association (IrDA) has produced a set of communication protocol standards (IrDA I. x) for directed point-to-point IR wireless links using a HDLC (High-level Data Link Control) based data link layer which have been widely adopted. To address the requirement for multi-point ad-hoc wireless connectivity, IrDA have produced a new standard (Advanced Infrared -AIr) to support multiple-device non-directed IR Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs). AIr employs an enhanced physical layer and a CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) based MAC (Media Access Control) layer employing RTS/CTS (Request To Send / Clear To Send) media reservation. This thesis is concerned with the design of IrDA based IR wireless links at the datalink layer, media access sub-layer, and physical layer and presents protocol performance models with the aim of highlighting the critical factors affecting performance and providing recommendations to system designers for parameter settings and protocol enhancements to optimise performance. An analytical model of the IrDA 1.x data link layer (IrLAP Infrared Link Access -Protocol) using Markov analysis of the transmission window width providing saturation condition throughput in relation to the link bit-error-rate (BER), datarate andprotocol parameter settings is presented. Results are presented for simultaneous optimisation of the data packetsize and transmission window size. A simulation model of the IrDA l. x protocol, developed with OPNETTM Modeler, is used for validation of analytical results and to produce non-saturation throughput and delay performance results. An analytical model of the AIr MAC protocol providing saturation condition utilisation and delay results in relation to the number of contending devices and MAC protocol parametersis presented.Results indicate contention window size values for optimum utilisation. The effectiveness of the AIr contention window linear back-off process is examined through Markov analysis. An OPNET simulation model of the Alf protocol is used for validation of the analytical model results and provides non-reservation throughput and delay results. An analytical model of the IR link physical layer is presented and derives expressions for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and BER in relation to link transmitter and receiver characteristics, link geometry, noise levels and line encoding schemes. The effect of third user interference on BER and resulting link asymmetry is also examined, indicating the minimum separation distance for adjacent links. Expressions for BER are linked to the data link layer analysis to provide optimum throughput results in relation to physical layer propertiesandlink distance.