Environmental impact assessment for underground railways :case studies : the Tehran Underground Railway in Iran, the Bakerloo line (London Underground Railway) in U.K. and the Hong Kong Underground Railway
Urban transport is a component of social and economic activities and underground railway development is now accepted, for large cities throughout the world, as being vital for urban public transport. The impact of underground railway transport on the environment has become increasingly important during recent years. This research shows how essential Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is in the planning and development of under- ground railway projects. The thesis shows how EIA methods provide those bodies responsible for urban transport with the basic techniques to enable them to carry out best environmental practice and to prevent adverse local impact. Three case studies were undertaken:- The Tehran Metro in the capital of Iran, the Bakerloo Line (London Underground, U.K.) and the Hong Kong Metro. The thesis demonstrated how the study was conducted with material and data gathered by observation and survey from the field and comprehensive questionnaires, and from scientific papers, documents, reports and other related literature sources. The thesis shows how EIA principles and techniques are employed through the use of checklists and Leopold's matrices in the identification and analysis of impacts caused by underground railways in both their construction and operational phases. The results of the data collected during this research are analyzed and discussed. Recommendations are made for the use of EIA techniques in assessing and possibly mitigating the adverse environmental effects of underground railways.