National identity in the era of globalisation
The project National Identity in the Era of Globalisation is a research on the nature of national identity and its potentials in the era of globalisation. National identity is approached by psychoanalysis and by political analysis. Psychoanalysis offers us some insight on identity and the process of identification, a process that shapes the individual personality-and identities-since birth. Identification is essential for understanding how people identify themselves and how they are mobilised by other people, groups etc. It also reveals the role of the others (outgroups, foreigners, etc.), who are also important to the extent that they act as reference points of identification, including negative identification; to a large extent their presence is essential for the coherence of the national group as the nation's aggressiveness is directed outwards, acting as a stabiliser for the cohesion of the group. National identity occurs out of identification with the national group, so its peculiar characteristics are defined by the nation. Nationalism inevitably comes to the fore, not only as the force that has forged the nation-state, but also as a mass mobilising ideology that determines the aspirations of the 'nationals'. As it will be argued in this thesis, nationalism changes national identities to 'nationalistic identities', and signifies the nation with new characteristics. Most significantly, nationalism appeals strongly to the human unconscious, and accounts for the seemingly 'irrational' characteristics of national identity. Thus, national identity partly derives its strength, prevalence and ferocity from nationalism. What are the prospects, then, of national identity in the era of globalization. In order to answer this, we must define globalisation and examine the position and strength of the national state in the current globalising era. Also, the prevalence of nationalism as a political force and ideology that signifies the nation and national identity to a large extent must be explored in the era of globalisation. As globalisation seems to provoke national awakenings and enhance existing nationalisms, the potentials for national identities to be strengthened or rendered obsolete will be examined.