Correlated data in multivariate analysis
After presenting (PCA) Principal Component Analysis and its relationship with time series data sets, we describe most of the existing techniques in this field. Various techniques, e.g. Singular Spectrum Analysis, Hilbert EOF, Extended EOF or Multichannel Singular Spectrum Analysis (MSSA), Principal Oscillation Pattern Analysis (POP Analysis), can be used for such data. The way we use the matrix of data or the covariance or correlation matrix, makes each method different from the others. SSA may be considered as a PCA performed on a lagged versions of a single time series where we may decompose the original time series into some main components. Following SSA we have its multivariate version (MSSA) where we try to augment the initial matrix of data to get information on lagged versions of each variable (time series) and so past (or future) behaviour can be used to reanalyse the information between variables. In POP Analysis a linear system involving the vector field is analysed, xt+1=Axt+nt, in order to “know” xt at time t+1 given the information from time t. The matrix A is estimated by using not only the covariance matrix but also the matrix of covariances between the systems at the current time and at lag 1. In Hilbert EOF we try to get some (future) information from the internal correlation in each variable by using the Hilbert transform of each series in a augmented complex matrix with the data themselves in the real part and the Hilbert time series in the imaginary part Xt + XtH. In addition to all these ideas from the statistics and other literature we develop a new methodology as a modification of HEOF and POP Analysis, namely Hilbert Oscillation Patterns (HOP) Analysis or the related idea of Hilbert Canonical Correlation Analysis (HCCA), by using a system, xHt = Axt + nt. Theory and assumptions are presented and HOPS results will be related with the results extracted from a Canonical Correlation Analysis between the time series data matrix and its Hilbert transform. Some examples will be given to show the differences and similarities of the results of the HCCA technique with those from PCA, MSSA, HEOF and POPs. We also present PCA for time series as observations where a technique of linear algebra (PCA) becomes a problem in function analysis leading to Functional PCA (FPCA). We also adapt PCA to allow for this and discuss the theoretical and practical behaviour of using PCA on the even part (EPCA) and odd part (OPCA) of the data, and its application in functional data. Comparisons will be made between PCA and this modification, for the reconstruction of data sets for which considerations of symmetry are especially relevant.