The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among Type 2 diabetic patients in the United Arab Emirates
The prevalence of positive subjects for psychiatric morbidity, as assessed by GHQ and HAD, among diabetic subjects was 19.2%, while that among matched-control subjects was 20.3% (p-value=0.753). No significant difference was found in the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity between diabetic and matched-control subjects over any of the individual psychiatric questionnaires (GHQ, HAD anxiety and depression sub-scales). Psychiatric morbidity, as assessed by the combined GHQ and HAD, was significantly higher among females compared to males (diabetic subjects, 28% and 8% respectively; matched-control subjects, 30.6% and 7.1% respectively). The same result was replicated over all the individual psychiatric questionnaires. Sex was found to be an independent predictor for psychiatric morbidity among both diabetic and matched-control subjects. Psychiatric morbidity was significantly associated with younger age, low income, and lifetime history of psychiatric, illness for both diabetic and matched-control subjects. Duration of diabetes among the diabetic subjects, family history of diabetes, and family history of psychiatric illness among diabetic and matched-control subjects were not found to be associated with psychiatric morbidity. In relation to obesity, the presence of psychiatric morbidity was significantly associated with higher level of Body Mass Index (BMI) among matched-control subjects but not among the diabetic subjects. However, by regression analysis this association was not found to be an independent predictor for either group. Psychiatric morbidity as assessed by combined GHQ and HAD, was significantly associated with the psychological sub-dimension of the Diabetic Symptom Checklist (DSC). Early onset of diabetes was significantly associated with female sex, family history of diabetes, lifetime history of psychiatric illness (past history of psychiatric illness), and current psychiatric disorder (as assessed by combined GHQ and HAD).