Archaistic elements in Greek art and architecture of the fourth century BC, with particular reference to works from Ionia and Caria
A number of Archaistic elements appeared in the sculpture and architecture of Asia Minor during the fourth century BC. Many of them are connected with works produced by the Hekatomnid dynasty, the ruling house of Caria during much of the fourth century BC. The main purpose of this thesis is to catalogue and investigate these elements and to try to explain the reasons for their appearance against the background of Archaism in the fourth century BC. One of the most important features was the curled hairstyle, which was used by the female members of the Hekatomnid family. In the first three chapters the use of this hairstyle is examined and its origins traced in the Archaic period in order to determine its Greek or Persian connections. Its continuation into Classical times, and its revival in the late fifth and fourth centuries as an Archaistic feature, are also considered. Two subsequent chapters discuss further aspects of Archaism in the art and architecture of Asia Minor in the fourth century BC. One examines the preservation or re-introduction of Archaic features in the cult-images or xoana in which the area abounded. The other considers the mentality that lay behind the way in which important temples such as the Ephesian Artenvision were rebuilt using elements from their Archaic predecessors, while new monuments like those at Labraunda incorporated features from Archaic architecture in their decoration. A further chapter reviews the extent and nature of Archaistic works of art from Mainland Greece in the late fifth and fourth centuries, in order to present an overall background against which to judge the examples from Asia Minor. In the Conclusion the evidence from previous chapters is summarised and an attempt made to draw together the reasons for the appearance of Archaistic elements in the art of Asia Minor, and the relationship with the Archaistic art of Mainland Greece.